In this Article…


Nanotech Perspectives
Nanotechnology defined by NIST Physics laboratory:
National Institute of
Standards and Technology
The agency
in the US Technology Administration that makes measurements and sets standards as needed by industry or government programs.
l l l
I don’t know about you, but the mental images generated by the name “The National Institute of Standards and Technology” includes bored bureaucrats in sterile environments waiting to remeasure the closely guarded, sacred yard stick of antiquity. Again.
Man, is that wrong. The NIST is part of the Dept.of Commerce. Their entire existence is focused on the positive health and wellbeing of our economy. As the dynamic wizardry of scientific advances blast the boundaries off the known, rearranging matter in neverbeforeseen configurations, creating new materials, imagining new applications, these guys have the challenge of essentially applying creative pragmatism to magic in order to enable effective trade.
They work sidebyside with universities, research labs, manufacturers, and businesses in an agile and effective approach to providing standardization that facilitates rather than eliminates, free, fair, and open trade.
The NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) supports the U.S. nanotechnology enterprise from discovery to production through two major initiatives:
NANOFAB  NANOLAB 
Standardizing, optimizing, popularizing, and training best practices in weights, measures, and manufacturing techniques to maximize trade potential.  Working with partners from education, industry, and government to create standards for next generation products, equipment, methods, and procedures. 
 Nanotechnology in the NIST Electron Physics Group: physics.nist.gov 1
 Most of the research of the NIST Electron Physics Group is in Nanostructure Science or Nanotechnology.
 Quantum Physics Division: physics.nist.gov 2
When they say jump, they’ll tell you exactly how high.
SI Base Units (International System of Units)
Definitions of the 7 SI base units (symbol in parenthesis)
1. Unit of length: Meter (m)
The meter is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second.
2. Unit of mass: Kilogram (kg)
The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.
3. Unit of time: Second (s)
The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.
4. Unit of electric current: Ampere (A)
The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular crosssection, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 107 newton per meter of length.
5. Unit of thermodynamic temperature: Kelvin (K)
The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.
6. Unit of amount of substance: Mole (mol)
 A mole is the most common way to measure a chemical substance.
 The mole is the amount of substance of a system that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12; its symbol is “mol.”
 When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.
 My daughter’s highschool celebrated “mole day”
7. Unit of luminous intensity: Candela (cd)
The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.
For a detailed discussion and view of measurements see the following:
 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) – Physics Laboratory: physics.nist.gov 3
 NIST – Technology Services – Weights and Measures: physics.nist.gov 4
 A Dictionary of Units www.ex.ac.uk
Quantities and Units, General
 A quantity in the general sense is a property ascribed to phenomena, bodies, or substances that can be quantified for, or assigned to, a particular phenomenon, body, or substance. Examples are mass and electric charge.
 A quantity in the particular sense is a quantifiable or assignable property ascribed to a particular phenomenon, body, or substance. Examples are the mass of the moon and the electric charge of the proton.
 A physical quantity is a quantity that can be used in the mathematical equations of science and technology.
 A unit is a particular physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which other particular quantities of the same kind are compared to express their value.
 The value of a physical quantity is the quantitative expression of a particular physical quantity as the product of a number and a unit, the number being its numerical value. Thus, the numerical value of a particular physical quantity depends on the unit in which it is expressed.
The Meter
The international standard unit of length, approximately equivalent to 39.37 inches. It was redefined in 1983 as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
Terminology for Metric Lengths:
 Yoctometer – 10 to the 24th power
 Zeptometer
 Attometer
 Femtometer
 Picometer
 Nanometer – 10 to the 9th power
 Mikrometer
 Millimeter
 Centimeter
 Desimeter
 Meter
 Dekameter
 Hektometer
 Kilometer – 1000 meters
 Megameter
 Gigameter
 Terrameter
 Petameter
 Exameter
 Zettameter
 Yottameter – 10 to the 24th power meter
The everyday metric system
Length:
 1000 millimeters = 1 meter
 100 centimeters = 1 meter
 1000 meters = 1 kilometer
Mass (or weight):
 1000 milligrams = 1 gram
 1000 grams = 1 kilogram
 1000 kilograms = 1 metric ton
Volume:
 1000 milliliters = l liter
 1000 liters = 1 cubic meter
Area:
 10 000 square meters = 1 hectare
 100 hectares = 1 square kilometer
Prefixes:
 Micro means 1/1 000 000
 Milli means 1/1000
 Centi means 1/100
 Kilo means 1000
 Mega means 1 000 000
Symbols:
 m for meter
 mm for millimeter
 cm for centimeter
 km for kilometer
 g for gram
 mg for milligram
 kg for kilogram
 L for liter
 mL for milliliter
 m2 for square meter
 m3 for cubic meter
 km2 for square kilometer
 t for metric ton
 ha for hectare
Some special relationships:
 1 milliliter = 1 cubic centimeter
 1 milliliter of water has a mass of approximately 1 gram
 1 liter of water has a mass of approximately 1 kilogram
 1 cubic meter of water has a mass of approximately 1 metric ton
Legal/official (exact) definitions of inchpound units as set by U.S. law:
 1 inch = 25.4 millimeters
 1 pound = 453.59237 grams
 1 gallon = 3.785411784 liters
Note: In Canada the inch and the pound are defined identically, but 1 Canadian gallon = 4.54609 liters.
International System of Units (SI) InchPound Conversion Factors:
 Multiply inches by 2.54 to get centimeters (this conversion factor is exact)
 Multiply feet by 0.305 to get meters
 Multiply miles by 1.6 to get kilometers
 Divide pounds by 2.2 to get kilograms
 Multiply ounces by 28 to get grams
 Multiply fluid ounces by 30 to get milliliters
 Multiply gallons by 3.8 to get liters
NanoScales
Nano ETYMOLOGY:
 Greek nanos (with long “a”), nannos, little old man, dwarf, from nannas, meaning uncle.
 A metric prefix meaning one billionth of a unit or 109.
 A prefix meaning one billionth (1/1,000,000,000).
 A prefix meaning onebillionth in the American numbering scheme, and one thousand millionth in the British system.
Nanometer
 A nanometer is a unit of spatial measurement that is 109 meter, or one billionth of a meter.
Nanosecond
 One billionth of a second (109 seconds).
 One thousandth of one millionth of a second.
Angstrom
 A unit of distance measure that equals 1010 meters.
 A unit of length equal to one tenbillionth of a meter
 A unit of length equal to one hundredmillionth (108) of a centimeter, used especially to specify radiation wavelengths. Also called angstrom unit.
 Micro – Prefix meaning one millionth.
 Macro (macroscopic) – Large enough to be perceived or examined by the unaided eye.
 However, macro meaning something seen by the naked eye is misleading. A view of earth taken by the Hubble Telescope is a “macro” view of earth, but certainly not one that can be seen by the human eye.
 Macro, unlike micro, does not imply a specific unit of measurement. A micro is one millionth of something, whereas macro is a general term meaning anything larger than micro.
Size Comparisons:
 CellsAlive.com
 Contains a flash animation comparing the size of an ordinary pin magnified 10, 100, 1000, 10,000, 100,000 and 1,000,000 times. www.cellsalive.com/howbig.htm
 Molecular Expressions
 Contains a flash animation starting with the Milky Way at 10 million light years from earth, moving exponentially through subatomic particles to the smallest particle known, the quark. micro.magnet.fsu.edu
 Department of Energy (DOE) – Office of Basic Energy Sciences – The Scale of Things
 Provides graphics illustrating the size of things ranging from an ant to nanotubes. www.science.doe.gov
Content also contributed by Jerry Flattum