Space Colonization: Future Human Habitats

Permanent Space Colonies

There are several proposed models for space colonies, including the Torus Model, which is shaped like a huge doughnut, and The Cylindrical Model.

Permanent Space Colonies an integral part of Future Human Evolution

Permanent Space Colonies an integral part of Future Human Evolution

As a first step toward interstellar travel, a space civilization/community will live inside these enormous, pressurized bottle-like enclosures which will orbit the sun or a planet. The habitats will be self-sufficient, constructed using materials gathered in space (i.e. asteroids and planetoids), and water, collected in the form of ice from planets of moons, can be used to design rivers and ponds. Clouds will naturally form above the land areas, given the correct humidity and temperature which will actually be able to be adjusted and even pre-programmed!

Normally, here on Earth, we have the atmosphere to filter out the harmful radiation emitted by the sun. To protect space inhabitants from this radiation, soil could cover the entire area inside the bottle, and solar energy can be used to create artificial light inside that is safe. Circadian and seasonal rhythms can be simulated for all the living creatures. Another possibility is to use very thick quartz glass as a filter for the light that is reflected, by mirrors, into the bottle keeping the natural, full-spectrum sunlight that we are so accustomed to. For the purist who would want to have seasons, remaining in orbit would be a definite plus, as these cycles would be most likely to be accurately simulated.


Inside a Space Habitat - The Future of Human Evolution

Inside a Space Habitat

To simulate the gravitational pull of planet Earth along its inner surface, the enclosure will turn constantly. This will create centripetal force (the same force that is exerted on water in a pail when you swing it around rapidly), which is measured in gs. One g equals the pull found on Earth. The larger the bottle, the faster it will turn to produce a force of one g. Also, as colonists approach the axis of the enclosure the pull decreases, creating the floating effect that has been witnessed in videos of astronauts in space.

Besides the entertaining possibility of near-zero gravity, day-to-day life in such a space colony can very much resemble life on Earth. In fact, given the fact that everything in the environment will be made from scratch, people living in such a habitat will probably be closer to nature than many suburban communities of our own planet. Imagine a future in which advanced technology gives humans the option to live more simply. How about a tropical island paradise? Or, spectacular daily sunrises and sunsets?

If the habitat ventures forth beyond our solar system, another energy source would be used, such as nuclear energy. The voyagers of such a space craft would be personally demonstrating their confidence in the safety of living next to a nuclear reactor!

Is this really possible?

Well, why not? The Earth, itself, is a network of ecosystems enclosed in an atmospheric sac, if you will. Furthermore, every mineral, water, and carbon-based molecule, regardless of complexity or simplicity, has been used, reused, broken down and recycled since before the emergence of our planet as we know it. So, why not create a self-sufficient, enclosed environment? An inside-out earth?

A social benefit would be that subcultures would have the freedom to create the world they prefer to live in. Not only can inhabitants choose to live close to nature, near clean and pure air and water, but colonies could be created around specific political, religious, scientific, or any other predilection humans tend to congregate and disagree about. As children come of age and form their unique belief systems, or as adults change their views on fundamental issues, one need only find a like-minded colony or start one of their own.

In fact, a space colony could provide infinite room for all of society’s ills, from crime to industrial pollution. These space ships could be designed for use as escape-proof incarceration systems and industries that usually produce hazardous wastes on Earth.

Some have proposed that space be used as the final frontier for garbage that is not biodegradable on Earth. According to this idea, pollutants can be released into specific regions of controlled space where they will not pose a danger to either colony of planetary inhabitants. For many, space colonization sounds like the ultimate answer.

Environmentalists may argue that creating pollutants only to release them into space is irresponsible and selfish, regardless of how far away they may be pushed.

Others may argue that it would simply not be a viable model to sustain life in the long-term. An ecologist might claim that nature, in her infinite wisdom, creates weather and atmospheric pressure according to the needs of an entire ecosystem. As the space habitat attempts to achieve its equilibrium, we might interfere to its detriment with our whimsical programming. Furthermore, the ecologist might argue that while an enclosed habitat may succeed in simulating the essential components of life-on-earth, it would likely overlook the various intricate relationships between all elements that sustain life, including parasitic and symbiotic micro-organisms.

A biologist might argue that an asteroid floating in space was not exposed to, nor influenced by, the same factors as planet Earth was in its evolution; therefore, it cannot be merely acquired and pulverized into living soil that would effectively sustain living organisms that did indeed evolve on this planet.

Furthermore, an agriculturist may point out the fact that in order to produce living crops, soil must contain macro and microminerals that exist in a specific, balanced ratio that is virtually identical to that of the optimally healthy human body,

A nutritionist might warn that if the space colony’s soil and blood samples do not produce optimal macro-to-micromineral ratios, the colonies may see unprecedented epidemics of diseases such as cancer and heart disease.  To this, the biospherist might mention the Biosphere 2 project, a study in which all the participants emerged from an enclosed habitat after two years in a healthier state than when they entered.

However, one might counter that the enclosure leaked at a rate of 10% per year, and that while this is a successful rate by Earths standards, in the vacuum of space such a leak could be disastrous, as the on-board plant volume/oxygen production capacity may not be able to replenish such loses.

The pessimist or the cynic might doubt that humans can live in any man-made environment regardless of how spacious it may be without seeking to hurt exploit or oppress someone.

Finally, the futurist carefully examines all the evidence, smiles knowingly, and assures us: Don’t worry! By then, well see the convergence of nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, genetic engineering, and quantum physics. The transhuman economists, scientists, and technicians will figure it all out despite the politicians.



Dubai – A whole other planet. What space colonies on other Earths might look like. The Future of Human Evolution.


Space Colonization:
Making the Interstellar Journey

How will Humans make the Journey ?

The possibilities for how we as humans will make the interstellar journey depends on several factors and assumptions. Key driving factors in the design of our accommodations include the speed and distance we plan to travel (see Where and How). We will also assume for the remainder of this discussion that humans will not become extinct and that the drive to survive and explore will not be eliminated from of our nature in the near term.

Suspended Animation

Although a favorite technique in science fiction, today’s technology does not provide for the realistic possibility of suspending through cryonics or other means with a chance of resuscitation. There are many research efforts aimed at making this a possibility. Most of these efforts are focused on the terminally ill and promote the promise of revival at a time when the disease can be cured. Whatever the impetus for invention, space-farers may benefit from this technology if and when it becomes practical.

suspended animation and the future of human evolution

suspended animation and the future of human evolution

AI/Machine Enhablement

This will be our first method of interstellar human representation. In fact, it has already begun in some respects (Voyager 1 has left the solar system). Small ships can equipped with sensory arrays and probes that will relay data back to earth or some grand central station, intended to aid us in our decision on where to send living, breathing humans. In the future, humans may also make the journey as machines. Downloading/uploading human conscious into computers is a favorite them of science fiction authors and is being considered as a possible goal of AI.

Incubatorial Craft

Commonly known as Seed Ships. These are one step beyond the AI/Machine enabled craft in that they are unmanned vessels which host self-contained laboratories for conceiving, incubating, birthing, and rearing humans perhaps thousands of light years from sol. The theory is that AI would spend the tedious eons traveling from system to system searching for planets able to support human life (perhaps with genetic alterations required to live in the new found biosphere), and would then launch the planet-bound habitat capable of producing and supporting the genesis of a new human society. Such a ship would carry all of the knowledge and tools necessary to establish an advanced civilization. Significant genetic alterations required by each new environment may be considered by some as constituting a new race. Social interaction between the range of possible human forms is an interesting area of speculation that we would like to explore through essays and conjecture submitted by our readers.

Generational Ships

We favor the generational ship approach. The name is self explanatory. A ship that supports successive generations of humans on a journey between the stars. Our reason for supporting this method of travel is simply this: It’s not the destination that is important, it’s the journey. The idea that life or the business of living has to be associated with a nearby star or planet is, well, terrestrial . Aside from the fact that star systems may need to be visited from time-to-time for the collection of resources and may be the place to meet other species, interstellar distances are a perfectly fine place to raise a family…

Faster Than Light Travel

Although not a reality yet, fans of Star Trek and any number of other science fiction shows know well the concept of a “Warp Drive”, or a propulsion system that allows faster than light travel. This could make interstellar travel no more strenuous than a trip here in the solar system. Of course, as we know from the recent shuttle problems, the most dangerous prt of any flight may be earth to orbiting docking station or ship. Assuming for the moment however that the privatization of space yields a more effective and efficient means of getting to free space, there are a number of theoretical Faster-Than-Light (FTL) systems. These include:

Worm Hole transportation – Although Special Relativity forbids objects to move faster than light within spacetime, it is known that spacetime itself can be warped and distorted. It takes an enormous amount of matter or energy to create such distortions, but distortions are possible, theoretically. To use an analogy: even if there were a speed limit to how fast a pencil could move across a piece of paper, the motion or changes to the paper is a separate issue. In the case of the wormhole, a shortcut is made by warping space (folding the paper) to connect two points that used to be separated. These theories are too new to have either been discounted or proven viable. And, yes, wormholes do invite the old time travel paradox problems again.

Alcubierres “Warp Drive” – The principle of this theoretical drive is that we could expand space-time behind the ship and contract space time in front of the ship to beat the limitations on our ability to move through space. For example you might only be able to travel 90 KPH on a highway. But if you move the highway in the direction you want to go, you have essentially doubled your speed, relative to your destination.

Negative mass propulsion – It has been shown that is theoretically possible to create a continuously propulsive effect by the juxtaposition of negative and positive mass and that such a scheme does not violate conservation of momentum or energy. A crucial assumption to the success of this concept is that negative mass has negative inertia. Their combined interactions result in a sustained acceleration of both masses in the same direction. This concept dates back to at least 1957 with an analysis of the properties of hypothetical negative mass by Bondi, and has been revisited in the context of propulsion by Winterberg and Forward in the 1980s. Regarding the physics of negative mass, it is not known whether negative mass exists or if it is even theoretically allowed, but methods have been suggested to search for evidence of negative mass in the context of searching for astronomical evidence of wormholes.

Milliss hypothetical “Space Drives” – A “space drive” can be defined as an idealized form of propulsion where the fundamental properties of matter and space-time are used to create propulsive forces anywhere in space without having to carry and expel a reaction mass. Such an achievement would revolutionize space travel as it would circumvent the need for propellant. A variety of hypothetical space drives were created and analyzed by Millis to identify the specific problems that have to be solved to make such schemes plausible. Please note that these concepts are purely hypothetical constructs aimed to illustrate the remaining challenges. Before any of these space drives can become reality, a method must be discovered where a vehicle can create and control an external asymmetric force on itself without expelling a reaction mass and the method must satisfy conservation laws in the process.


Space Colonization: Interstellar Propulsion Systems

There have been a number of interstellar propulsion systems proposed, and many are on the drawing board today. They range from the practical using today’s technology to the fantastical requiring great leaps in technological advancement to achieve. Here are a few of the more well known, in chronological order starting with the earliest.

Project Orion, 1958


Orion 1958

In 1958, physicist Freeman Dyson, Theodore Taylor, and a team of scientists started a top secret space vehicle project trying to utilize nuclear explosives behind a massive pusher plate cushioned by duel shock absorber columns.  They intended to use it for both interplanetary and interstellar flight, so called it Project Orion after the constellation.  The goal was to create a less expensive means of exploring deep space than chemical rockets, as nuclear fission provides millions of times more thrust than chemical combustion. Smaller, lighter, easier to carry, and more effective equals larger payloads and greater speeds.

No actual spacecraft emerged from Project Orion then, or even today as scientists take another look at an old idea, but there were several flight test vehicles several that were damaged or destroyed.  The first successful test flight was in 1959 using six explosions to gain 10 meters of altitude using chemical explosives for the proof of concept.

Bussard Interstellar Ramjet, 1960


Bussard Interstellar Ramjet

The whole idea behind this Bussard Interstellar Ramjet concept, from the 1960’s, is that it uses free-floating protons in interstellar space to convert into nuclear fusion.

Using enormous electromagnetic fields hundreds of kilometers in diameter to “scoop” and compress hydrogen *hopefully* available in the vast distances between stars, high speeds would theoretically force the reactive mass into progressively more constricting magnetic fields much the way a jet engine’s fans force compressed air into smaller and smaller circumferences, compressing it until thermonuclear fusion occurs (or is caused to occur).

The same magnetic field would then focus the force of the continual nuclear reactions out of the back side of the craft, propelling it in the desired direction.  The faster the vehicle travels, the more material it scoops, the greater the nuclear reactions, and faster the vehicle travels…

Practical problems include not knowing the dispersion or availability of atoms in deep space, and how exactly to get fusion to occur.

Project Daedalus, 1973


Daedalus Interstellar Vehicle

The challenge: use current or near-future technology, be able to reach its destination within a human lifetime, and be flexible enough in its design that it could be sent to any of a number of target stars. British Interplanetary Society‘s answer?

Daedalus was the first serious and thorough design for an interstellar vehicle, a robotic probe that would target Barnard’s Star which is 5.9 light years from the sun, reaching it in fifty years and moving at 12% the speed of light.

The British Interplanetary Society conducted their research on Daedalus between 1973 and 1977.  It was essentially a re-engineered “nuclear-pulse” rocket of Project Orion origin.  Instead of the rocket using nuclear fission for propulsion however,  it utilized nuclear fusion.  The rocket was propelled by a process coined as “internal confinement fusion.”  Small pellets of helium-3 and deuterium were each to be hit by electron beams in a combustion chamber and exploded like mini thermonuclear bombs.

Like the Ramjet, magnetic fields would then channel the hot plasma of the continual explosions out of the back of the craft, accelerating the ship with increasing speed.

Project Daedalus Animated Ship Video

Solar Sailing, 1984


Solar Sail

Solar sails work because photons (light particles) have momentum and force even though they have no rest mass. This resulting “solar wind” hits a craft’s reflective surfaced-sail, giving it  a push just like the wind on an ocean sail. The effect builds up over time accelerating a solar sailing ship to tremendous speeds without the need for propellant.

The technology has already been tested in space, with Japan’s Ikaros probe deploying a 46-foot-wide (14 meters) sail in June 2010 and NASA launching an even smaller craft called NanoSail-D five months later.

Some scientist believe that a sail as large as Texas would be needed for an effective interstellar craft. However, recent advances in nanotechnology and the production of nano materials makes the daunting task of manufacturing and deploying such a large scale component more within reach than was even thought 2 years ago.

Alcubierres Warp Drive, 1994


Alcubierre’s Improved Warp Drive

The idea came to White while he was considering a rather remarkable equation formulated by physicist Miguel Alcubierre. In his 1994 paper titled,  Alcubierre suggested a mechanism by which space-time could be “warped” both in front of and behind a spacecraft.

In 1994 Miguel Alcubierre authored a paper entitled “The Warp Drive: Hyper-Fast Travel Within General Relativity,” in which he proved the mathematical possibility of “warping” space-time via some as yet undiscovered exotic particle or power. But the idea was to dramatically expand space behind an interstellar craft and to condense the space in front of it; the middle (holding the space craft) would then be perpetually moved forward.  Perhaps reaching stars in weeks, not thousands of years. Theoretically. The problem was that there would be no way to create enough power to generate such a warp field.

Enter physicist and NASA scientist Harold White.  He announced in 2012 that he had made some revisions to Alcubierre’s equations based on the thickness of the negative vacuum energy ring; he realized mathematically, that if you make that thicker and oscillate the warp bubble it’s plausible to dramatically decrease the energy needed.  The revised equations were compelling enough to get him funding for continued warp drive research at NASA.

Deep Space 1, 1998


Deep Space 1

Ion propulsion is a technology that involves ionizing a gas to propel a craft. Instead of a spacecraft being propelled with standard chemicals, the gas xenon (which is like neon or helium, but heavier) is given an electrical charge, or ionized. It is then electrically accelerated to a speed of about 30 km/second. When xenon ions are emitted at such high speed as exhaust from a spacecraft, they push the spacecraft in the opposite direction.

SOLAR ELECTRIC ION PROPULSION – Unlike chemical rocket engines, ion engines accelerate nearly continuously, giving each ion a tremendous burst of speed. The DS1 engine provided about 10 times the specific impulse (ratio of thrust to propellant used) of chemical propulsion.

SOLAR CONCENTRATOR ARRAY – The advanced solar concentrator arrays that provide power to the ion engine are more efficient than conventional arrays, and cost and weigh less.

Deep Space 1 Home

Anti-Matter Drive, 2000

Anti-Matter Drive and the Future of Human Evolution

Anti-Matter Drive

In October 2000, NASA scientists announced early designs for an antimatter engine that could generate enormous thrust with only small amounts of antimatter fueling it. Matter-antimatter propulsion will be the most efficient propulsion ever developed, because 100 percent of the mass of the matter and antimatter is converted into energy.

When matter and antimatter collide, the energy released by their annihilation releases about 10 billion times the energy that chemical energy such as hydrogen and oxygen combustion, the kind used by the space shuttle, releases.

Matter-antimatter reactions are 1,000 times more powerful than the nuclear fission produced in nuclear power plants and 300 times more powerful than nuclear fusion energy.

First Successful Solar Sail



IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun) was an experimental spaceship built and launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It launched May 21st, 2010, alongside the Venus Climate probe Akatsuki Orbier and four other small spacecraft. IKAROS was the first space vehicle to successfully demonstrate interplanetary solar-sail technology as its main propulsion.

IKAROS flew by Venus at about 80,800 km (50,200 mi)On 8 December 2010,

Technologies proven during the mission included:

  • Deployment and control of a 20 m (66 ft) square, micro-thin (0.00030 in) polyimide solar sail
  • Solar cells integrated into the sail to power its payload
  • Accurate acceleration measurement provided by the solar wind
  • Variable reflectance liquid crystal panels for attitude control.

Unmanned Spacecraft Already Near Interstellar Space

Voyager and Pioneer Missions Interstellar Bound

Voyager and Pioneer Missions Interstellar Bound

The twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft continue exploring where nothing from Earth has flown before. In the 36th year after their 1977 launches, they each are much farther away from Earth and the Sun than Pluto. Voyager 1 and 2 are now in the “Heliosheath” – the outermost layer of the heliosphere where the solar wind is slowed by the pressure of interstellar gas. Both spacecraft are still sending scientific information about their surroundings through the Deep Space Network (DSN).

The mission objective of the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) is to extend the NASA exploration of the solar system beyond the neighborhood of the outer planets to the outer limits of the Sun’s sphere of influence, and possibly beyond. This extended mission is continuing to characterize the outer solar system environment and search for the heliopause boundary, the outer limits of the Sun’s magnetic field and outward flow of the solar wind. Penetration of the heliopause boundary between the solar wind and the interstellar medium will allow measurements to be made of the interstellar fields, particles and waves unaffected by the solar wind.



The Voyagers should cross the heliopause 10 to 20 years after reaching the termination shock. The Voyagers have enough electrical power and thruster fuel to operate at least until 2020. By that time, Voyager 1 will be 12.4 billion miles (19.9 billion KM) from the Sun and Voyager 2 will be 10.5 billion miles (16.9 billion KM) away. Eventually, the Voyagers will pass other stars. In about 40,000 years, Voyager 1 will drift within 1.6 light-years (9.3 trillion miles) of AC+79 3888, a star in the constellation of Camelopardalis which is heading toward the constellation Ophiuchus.

In about 40,000 years, Voyager 2 will pass 1.7 light-years (9.7 trillion miles) from the star Ross 248 and in about 296,000 years, it will pass 4.3 light-years (25 trillion miles) from Sirius, the brightest star in the sky . The Voyagers are destined—perhaps eternally—to wander the Milky Way.

More Resources

Project Icarus

Project Icarus is a volunteer theoretical engineering study to design an interstellar spacecraft. The project was launched on September 30th 2009 at the British Interplanetary Society HQ in London, and is a five year study. The purpose of Project Icarus is four-fold:

  1. To motivate a new generation of scientists in designing space missions that can explore beyond our solar system.
  2. To generate greater interest in the real term prospects for interstellar precursor missions that are based on credible science.
  3. To design a credible interstellar probe that is a concept design for a potential mission in the coming centuries so as to allow a direct technology comparison with Daedalus and to provide an assessment of the maturity of fusion based space propulsion for future precursor missions.
  4. To allow a direct technology comparison with Daedalus and provide an assessment of the maturity of fusion based space propulsion for future precursor missions.

Project Icarus was initiated by the British Interplanetary Society (BIS) and the Tau Zero Foundation (TZF) and is currently being managed by Icarus Interstellar Inc., a nonprofit foundation.

Research into Deep Space Exploration

Alpha Centauri and other nearby stars seem impossible destinations not just for manned missions but even for robotic probes like Cassini or Galileo. Nonetheless, serious work on propulsion, communications, long-life electronics and spacecraft autonomy continues at NASA, ESA and many other venues, some in academia, some in private industry. The goal of reaching the stars is a distant one and the work remains low-key, but fascinating ideas continue to emerge. This site will track current research. I’ll also throw in the occasional musing about the literary and cultural implications of interstellar flight. Ultimately, the challenge may be as much philosophical as technological: to reassert the value of the long haul in a time of jittery short-term thinking.


Space Colonization:
The Economics of Space Travel

At the present time there is not a viable purely economic argument in favor of space exploration. With the cost of sending just one kilogram into orbit at between $5,000 and $10,000 (US 2013), access to space remains within the realm of governmental control. The cost of launching an object into space has not decreased since Apollo 11 went to the moon in 1969, and the cost of launching the space shuttle was a whopping $400 million a flight. This effectively allows governments (along with their associated bureaucracy and political chains) to control the space agenda, completely shutting out the private interests of capable, forward-thinking individuals and organizations.

It is our opinion that the only way to make interstellar space travel a reality this century is through the introduction of competitive market forces to drive the cost of launch down to a fraction of current levels. This means, of course, the privatization of space.

The Privatization of Space


Some believe that the popularization of space will lead to greater economies in space travel, we agree with this theory based on free market principles. Greater demand will lead to more entrants into the ‘market’, creating competition which fuels efficiencies, innovation, and lower prices which in turn generates an even greater demand. Economics 101. NASA has recognized this potential competition for 20 years. In 1994 they sponsored a symposium entitled “What is the Value of Space Exploration?”

NASA needs to change its relationship with the private sector as well. “The commercial space sector is at last becoming important,” and “NASA has to see itself as complementary to, and integrated with,” the launch business, the remote sensing industry, and other sectors “in a way in which it simply didn’t have to 10 years ago because these sectors didn’t really exist,”
-W. Bowman Cutter
-Deputy Assistant to the President for Economic Policy

Paving the Road to Beyond

The European Space Agency in their “A Review of the Long-Term Options for Space Exploration and Utilisation” has suggested that space exploration should progress in the sequence: 1) space tourism, 2) space solar power, 3) Moon exploration, and 4) Mars exploration. We agree and embrace these goals in the interest of developing the necessary social acceptance, technology, and infrastructure required to cross the interstellar distances. In addition to these, however, the economic motivators such as manufacturing and orbital power stations need to be considered.

Stateside, In May 2012, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) made a successful roundtrip journey to the International Space Station. After delivering about a ton of supplies, the craft’s capsule (dubbed “Dragon”) returned to Earth carrying broken equipment, samples from experiments, and other items a few weeks later.  The craft and its activities were based on a $1.6 billion NASA contract.  The mission may have marked phase one in a new space travel standard in the near future.

Motivations for Private Enterprise

Space Tourism

Space Tourism is the term that’s come to be used to mean ordinary members of the public buying tickets to travel to space and back. Many people find this idea futuristic. But over the past few years a growing volume of professional work has been done on the subject, and it’s now clear that setting up commercial space tourism services is a realistic target for business today.

Satellite Solar Power Stations (SSPS)

A geosynchronous orbit is on the Earth’s equatorial plane with a radius at which a satellite matches the Earth’s angular velocity, and is stationary with respect to an observer on the Earth’s surface. This orbit lends itself to communications, monitoring of the Earth’s surface, and power transmission to the Earth’s surface, all of which need to be done more or less continuously without interruption of service. The power transmission concepts call for the collection of solar power by huge satellites, conversion to electrical power by either photovoltaic and transmission to the Earth by 10 cm microwave power beams. On the Earth’s surface the power is to be received, rectified and then fed into the power grid. MORE


The weightless environment of space can be exploited for manufacturing of valuable products which cannot be produced on Earth, such as pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, hyper-pure materials and exotic alloys. Additionally, the pollutant-laden process of manufacturing products and chemicals could be moved off-world where the by-products so harmful to the delicate terrestrial ecosystem could be more safely dispersed into space. As with the other potential market drivers, a reduction of launch costs for such ventures could become extremely economic, and provide a major route for terrestrial economic expansion, as well as presenting ecological advantages. Cheaper Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV’s) are a key ingredient in making space a viable economic industry.


The resources, in terms of mineral deposits, tied up in asteroids, the moon, Mars and other bodies could provide off-world mining sites that would allow us to stop or reduce terrestrial resource mining. The natural resources in space include metallic nickel-iron alloy, silicate minerals, hydrated minerals, bituminous material, and various volatiles, including water, ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane, and others. These have all been identified either in meteorites, or spectroscopically in asteroids and comets. Any industrial development in space requiring more than about a thousand tonnes of structural mass or propellant per year will direct attention to these materials as ores, in the true mining engineering sense. -More-


Laboratories in space could perform experiments you wouldn’t want to do on Earth because of the risks involved to the population. Potential deadly experiments with viruses and bacteria that hold the possibility of mass casualty in the event of an accident could more safely be performed from either space stations or planetary scientific outposts, greatly reducing the risk of catastrophe.

laboratories in space: Part of the future of human evolution

Interstellar Space Colonization

space colonyI have been emboldened as of late to further press the agenda of Interstellar Colonization.

When Hollywood and the media powers that drive social consciousness, awareness, and attitudes decide to hop on the bandwagon, this site becomes no longer a cry in the dark or a whisper in the night with espousing the absolute necessity of our species to spread to other planets, which has been a formal core tenant of our creed since 1979.

The hindrance of progress toward this goal is dwarfed by the absolute failure of your government and mine to wisely invest in space exploration, instead spending trillions on archaic military shows of force (no longer relevant in today’s world) and scare tactics to keep us domicile to the egregious, internationally-recognized class warfare that unbridled capitalism has brought upon us.  It is a clear recognized fact that wealth, supported by the institutions and policies of a crooked government (YOUR Congressman and Senators, in the US, other titles meant to impress and intimidate in other lands) will continue to be centralized, making the rich richer and the average, middle class and poor, poorer.  All for the temporary comforts and excesses that bribery (illegal and legalized via political contributions) affords.

The system is broken.

Gates, who personally acknowledges his fortune is due to the “system,” is free to spend your money and mine on malaria band-aid vaccinations rather than invest at least some in space technologies that will not only allow unprecedented access to the riches of raw materials in space that could improve all our lives, but that will also mitigate the risks of human extinction created by our own hands. All driven by momentary greed and profits:

  • The global warming resulting from our oil economy and burned fossil fuels.
  • The continual pumping of ocean pollutants into the deep blue jewel of the universe.
  • The over-use of antibiotics that can only end in a losing human battle.
  • The stripping of our majestic natural rain forests.
  • The erosion of of our rich and fertile co2/oxygen conversion and food producing lands.

All because some people can’t get enough, and others don’t have enough. And profit, we’re lied to since birth, is the only way for us to get the stuff we want and need. Folks, there is plenty to go around. You and I have to right the wrong. It is time for a Seachange. It is time for progressive taxes at a minimum, and a complete overhaul of our political and economic policies and institutions.

It is time for worldwide governments to operate on a  100% visible basis (yes, hello reality show big brother, ever-present cameras)  that cause short-term one-term elected or appointed politicians, perhaps via a scientifically-based meritocracy, to make decisions that are for the betterment of ALL. Not personal gain, not a district, not a state, not a country, not a continent.

Even Romania is fucking its citizens. Lining military supplier pockets instead of  harvesting the riches of space for all mankind.

Click for Larger – Even Romania is robbing its citizens, as are they all. Lining military supplier pockets instead of harvesting the riches of space for all mankind.

Human Extinction: Risk Management

To reiterate the above, and to provide continuity with the original “Reasons for Interstellar Colonization” article some 12 years ago, the most obvious reason is that the earth’s existence is finite. It may very well be billions of years before the sun burns out or explodes, but it may only be months or years before a natural disaster such as an asteroid impact, or mega-volcano, or a biological agent makes spaceship earth uninhabitable by humans. Global warming is In-Our-Face. We must expand beyond one environment to decrease the likelihood that a single catastrophe will cause our extinction.

Adventure, Exploration, and Extraterrestrial Life

We will see wondrous sites. More unimaginable than the most gifted digital artist of today. In the course of our explorations we hope find evidence of other civilizations if not living members of those societies. The confirmed existence of extraterrestrial life developed independently of our own planet’s history will help to provide some additional perspective on fundamental questions like “why are we here?” If we discover that life is ubiquitous, our human-centric perspective will give way to a greater cosmic truth. If on the other hand we are able to confirm, after much exploration that we are indeed alone, that will perhaps have the greater impact.

Scientific and Technological Advancement

Every major scientific initiative results in the need for new, never-before existing tools, machines, techniques, and processes. Entire new technologies can be born, or revolutionary and radical new ways of performing, creating, or manufacturing materials and components and their functions can be invented.

Oft times such new breakthroughs are ‘spin-offs’ – i.e. a new manufacturing technique for space modules finds itself on the surgeon’s table in full spinal column replacement.

New Social and Political Freedoms

In a reality of abundant worlds and inexpensive transport between them, entire worlds or continent-sized colonies on them may subscribe to particular sets of social, political, religious, economic, or other doctrine. Nay-sayers and the rebellious have to but leave toward the colony or world that is of like mind.

Perhaps the only universally-enforced standard across the colonized worlds would be the sanctity of freedom – the ability to choose.  Even if one’s only choice is to leave behind a world that offers no perceived alternatives. An appeals process involving a multi-colony panel and available to those sentenced to severe punishments and/or death may also seem reasonable as an arbitrator of justice and human rights.


However idealistic and valid these other reasons for space exploration are, it may be simple economics that ultimately provides the impetus for our serious, sustained effort at living in extraterrestrial environments. Space is literally the largest store of natural resources in the universe. And it remains COMPLETELY untapped.