On Human Intelligence

By Robert J. Sternberg and James C. Kaufman Brain Jar

ABSTRACT

This chapter reviews recent literature, primarily from the 1990s, on human abilities. The review opens with a consideration of the question of what intelligence is, and then considers some of the major definitions of intelligence, as well as implicit theories of intelligence around the world. Next, the chapter considers cognitive approaches to intelligence, and then biological approaches. It proceeds to psychometric or traditional approaches to intelligence, and then to broad, recent approaches.

The different approaches raise somewhat different questions, and hence produce somewhat different answers. They have in common, however, the attempt to understand what kinds of mechanisms lead some people to adapt to, select, and shape environments in ways that match particularly well the demands of those environments.

CONTENTS

Introduction

Definitions of Intelligence

Westren Psychological Views

Cross-Cultural Views

Cognitive Approaches to Intelligence

Biological Approaches to Intelligence

Early Biological Theories

Modern Biological Views and Research

The Psychometric Approache to Intelligence

Theoretical Developments: Carroll.s and Horn.s Theories

An Empirical Curiosity: The Flynn Effect

Psychometric Tests

The Bell Curve Phenomenon

Broad Theories of Intelligence and of Kinds of Intelligence

Multiple Intelligences

Successful Intelligence

True Intelligence

The Bioecological Model of Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

The study of intelligence is like a real-world Jeopardy game. Curiously, there is more agreement regarding answers than there is regarding what questions these answers answer. For example, it is uncontroversial that on conventional tests of intelligence, members of certain socially identified racial and ethnic groups differ on average. But what does such a difference show? What question does it answer? Does it answer the question of whether there are differences across groups in intelligence, whether the tests are differentially biased for members of different groups, whether different groups have had different educational opportunities, or whether different groups differ on a narrow subset of skills that constitutes only a small part of intelligence, or some other question still? To understand the field of human abilities and intelligence, one must consider questions at least as much as answers.

The goal of this paper is to consider some of the main questions being asked and answers being offered today in the field of human abilities, in general, and of human intelligence, in particular, and to consider the match between them. What are the important questions, and what are the questions that available data answer? We organize our review around some of the main paradigms in the study of human abilities, because the paradigm one uses generates, to a large extent, the questions that are viewed as important or not important. Before we consider these theories, however, we first consider even what intelligence is, going back in history and up to the present.

DEFINITIONS OF INTELLIGENCE

What is intelligence? It turns out that the answer depends on whom you ask, and that the answer differs widely across disciplines, time, and places. We discuss the diversity of views about what intelligence is because empirical studies often assume rather than explore the nature of the construct they are investigating .in this case, intelligence.

Western Psychological Views

How have Western psychologists conceived of intelligence? Almost none of these views is adequately expressed by Boring.s (1923) operationistic view of intelligence as whatever it is that intelligence tests test. This empty and circular definition is still used by some investigators in the field. For example, in a 1921 symposium (Intelligence and Its Measurement: A Symposium) on experts. definitions of intelligence, researchers emphasized 480 STERNBERG & KAUFMAN the importance of the ability to learn and the ability to adapt to the environment. Sixty-five years later, Sternberg & Detterman (1986) conducted a similar symposium, again asking experts their views on intelligence. Learning and adaptive abilities retained their importance, and a new emphasis crept in: metacognition, or the ability to understand and control oneself. Of course, the name is new, but the idea is not, because Aristotle emphasized long before the importance for intelligence of knowing oneself.

Cross-Cultural Views

In some cases, Western notions about intelligence are not shared by other cultures. For example, at the mental level, the Western emphasis on speed of mental processing (Sternberg et al 1981) is not shared by many cultures. Other cultures may even be suspicious of the quality of work done very quickly and may emphasize depth rather than speed of processing. They are not alone: Some prominent Western theorists have pointed out the importance of depth of processing for full command of material (e.g. Craik & Lockhart 1972). Yang & Sternberg (1997a) have reviewed Chinese philosophical conceptions of intelligence.

The Confucian perspective emphasizes the characteristic of benevolence and of doing what is right. As in the Western notion, the intelligent person spends much effort in learning, enjoys learning, and persists in life-long learning with enthusiasm. The Taoist tradition, in contrast, emphasizes the importance of humility, freedom from conventional standards of judgment, and full knowledge of oneself and of external conditions. The difference between Eastern and

Western conceptions of intelligence may persist even today. Yang and Sternberg (1997b) studied contemporary Taiwanese Chinese conceptions of intelligence and found five factors underlying these conceptions: (a) a general cognitive factor, much like the g factor in conventional Western tests; (b) interpersonal intelligence; (c) intrapersonal intelligence; (d) intellectual self-assertion; and (e) intellectual self-effacement. In a related study but with different results, Chen (1994) found three factors underlying Chinese conceptualizations of intelligence: nonverbal reasoning ability, verbal reasoning ability, and rote memory. The difference may be due to different subpopulations of Chinese, to differences in methodology, or to differences in when the studies were done.

The factors uncovered in both studies differ substantially from those identified in US people.s conceptions of intelligence by Sternberg et al (1981).(a) practical problem solving, (b) verbal ability, and (c) social competence .although in both cases, people.s implicit theories of intelligence seem to go quite far beyond what conventional psychometric intelligence tests measure. Of course, comparing the Chen (1994) study to the Sternberg et al (1981) study simultaneously varies both language and culture. Chen & Chen (1988) varied only language. They explicitly compared the concepts of intelligence of Chinese graduates from Chinese-language versus English-language schools in Hong Kong. They found that both groups considered nonverbal reasoning skills as the most relevant skills for measuring intelligence. Verbal reasoning and social skills came next, and then numerical skills. Memory was seen as least important. The Chinese-language-schooled group, however, tended to rate verbal skills as less important than did the English– language-schooled group. Moreover, in an earlier study, Chen et al (1982) found that Chinese students viewed memory for facts as important for intelligence, whereas Australian students viewed these skills as of only trivial importance.

Das (1994), also reviewing Eastern notions of intelligence, has suggested that in Buddhist and Hindu philosophies, intelligence involves waking up, noticing, recognizing, understanding, and comprehending but also includes such things as determination, mental effort, and even feelings and opinions in addition to more intellectual elements.

Differences between cultures in conceptions of intelligence have been recognized for some time. Gill & Keats (1980) noted that Australian University students value academic skills and the ability to adapt to new events as critical to intelligence, whereas Malay students value practical skills, as well as speed and creativity. Dasen (1984) found that Malay students emphasize both social and cognitive attributes in their conceptions of intelligence.

The differences between East and West may be due to differences in the kinds of skills valued by the two kinds of cultures (Srivastava & Misra 1996). Western cultures and their schools emphasize what might be called .technological intelligence. (Mundy-Castle 1974), and so things like artificial intelligence and so-called smart bombs are viewed, in some sense, as intelligent, or smart. According to this view, intelligence ends up being oriented toward the development and improvement of technology.

Western schooling also emphasizes other things (Srivastava and Misra 1996), such as generalization, or going beyond the information given (Connolly & Bruner 1974, Goodnow 1976), speed (Sternberg 1985a), minimal moves to a solution (Newell & Simon 1972), and creative thinking (Goodnow 1976). Moreover, silence is interpreted as a lack of knowledge (Irvine 1978). In contrast, the Wolof tribe in Africa views people of higher social class and distinction as speaking less (Irvine 1978). This difference between the Wolof and Western notions suggests the usefulness of looking at African notions of intelligence and its manifestations in behavior as a possible contrast to US notions. Studies in Africa, in fact, provide yet another window on the substantial differences. Ruzgis & Grigorenko (1994) have argued that, in Africa, conceptions of intelligence revolve largely around skills that help to facilitate and maintain harmonious and stable intergroup relations; intragroup relations are probably equally important and at times more important.

For example, Serpell (1974, 1977, 1982) found that Chewa adults in Zambia emphasize social responsibilities, cooperativeness, and obedience as important to intelligence; intelligent children are expected to be respectful of adults. Kenyan parents also emphasize responsible participation in family and social life as important aspects of intelligence (Super & Harkness 1982; CM Super & S Harkness, unpublished manuscript). In Zimbabwe, the word for intelligence, ngware, actually means to be prudent and cautious, particularly in social relationships. Among the Baoule, service to the family and community and politeness toward and respect for elders are seen as key to intelligence (Dasen 1984). Similar emphasis on social aspects of intelligence has been found as well among two other African groups.the Songhay of Mali and the Samia of Kenya (Putnam & Kilbride 1980). The Yoruba, another African tribe, emphasize the importance of depth.of listening rather than just talking.to intelligence, and of being able to see all aspects of an issue and to place the issue in its proper overall context (Durojaiye 1993).

The emphasis on the social aspects of intelligence is not limited to African cultures. Notions of intelligence in many Asian cultures also emphasize the social aspect of intelligence more than does the conventional Western or IQ– based notion (Azuma&Kashiwagi 1987, Lutz 1985, Poole 1985, White 1985). It should be noted that neither African nor Asian notions emphasize exclusively social notions of intelligence.

In a collaborative study with a number of investigators, Sternberg and Grigorenko (1997b) are currently studying conceptions of intelligence in rural Kenya. In one village (Kissumu), many and probably most of the children are at least moderately infected with a variety of parasitic infections. Consequently, they experience stomachaches quite frequently. Traditional medicine suggests the usefulness of a large variety (actually hundreds) of natural herbal medicines that can be used to treat such infections. It appears that at least some of these although perhaps a small percentage actually work. More important for our purposes, however, is that children who learn how to self-medicate with these natural herbal medicines are viewed as being at an adaptive advantage over those who do not have this kind of informal knowledge. Clearly, the kind of adaptive advantage that is relevant in this culture would be viewed as totally irrelevant in the West, and vice versa.

Although these conceptions of intelligence much more emphasize social skills than do conventional US conceptions of intelligence, they simultaneously recognize the importance of cognitive aspects of intelligence. Note, however, that there is no one overall US conception of intelligence. Okagaki& Sternberg (1993) found that different ethnic groups in San Jose, California, had rather different conceptions of what it means to be intelligent. For example, Latino parents of schoolchildren tended to emphasize the importance of social-competence skills in their conceptions of intelligence, whereas Asian parents tended rather heavily to emphasize the importance of cognitive skills. Anglo parents also more emphasized cognitive skills. Teachers, representing the dominant culture, more emphasized cognitive- rather than social-competence skills. The rank order of children of various groups. performance (including subgroups within the Latino and Asian groups) could be perfectly predicted by the extent to which their parents shared the teachers. conception of intelligence. That is, teachers tended to reward those children who were socialized into a view of intelligence that happened to correspond to the teachers. own. Yet, as we argue below, social aspects of intelligence, broadly defined, may be as important as or even more important than cognitive aspects of intelligence in later life. For example, a team that needs to complete a cognitive task may not be able to do so if the members are unable to work together. Some, however, prefer to study intelligence not in its social aspect but in its cognitive one.

COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO INTELLIGENCE

Cronbach (1957) called for a merging of the two disciplines of scientific psychology .the differential and the experimental approaches. Serious responses to Cronbach came in the 1970s, with cognitive approaches to intelligence attempting this merger. Hunt et al (1973) introduced the cognitive-correlates approach, whereby scores on laboratory cognitive tests were correlated with scores on psychometric intelligence tests. Sternberg (1977) introduced the cognitive-components approach, whereby performance on complex psychometric tasks was decomposed into elementary information-processing components. Cronbach and Snow (1977; see also Snow 1994) have summarized and synthesized a large literature on aptitude-treatment interaction approaches, whereby instruction and assessment would be tailored to patterns of abilities.

In the 1990s, cognitive and biological approaches (discussed next) have begun to merge. A prototypical example is the inspection-time task (Nettlebeck 1982; see review by Deary and Stough 1996). In this task, two adjacent vertical lines are presented tachistoscopically or by computer, followed by a visual mask (to destroy the image in visual iconic memory). The two lines differ in length, as do the lengths of time for which the two lines are presented. The subjects task is to say which line is longer. Instead of using raw response time as the dependent variable, however, investigators typically use measures derived from a psychophysical function estimated after many trials. For example, the measure might be the mean duration of a single inspection trial at which 50% accuracy is achieved. Correlations between this task and measures of IQ appear to be about 0.4, a bit higher than is typical in psychometric tasks.

There are differing theories about why such correlations are obtained, but such theories 484 STERNBERG and KAUFMAN generally attempt to relate the cognitive function of visual inspection time to some kind of biological function, such as speed of neuronal conduction. Let us consider, then, some of the biological functions that may underlie intelligence.

BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO INTELLIGENCE

An important approach to studying intelligence is to understand it in terms of the functioning of the brain, in particular, and of the nervous system, in general. Earlier theories relating the brain to intelligence tended to be global in nature, although not necessarily backed by strong empirical evidence.

Early Biological Theories

Halstead (1951) suggested that there are four biologically based abilities, which he called (a) the integrative field factor, (b) the abstraction factor, (c) the power factor, and (d) the directional factor. Halstead attributed all four of these abilities primarily to the functioning of the cortex of the frontal lobes. More influential than Halstead has been Hebb (1949), who distinguished between two basic types of intelligence: Intelligence A and Intelligence B. Hebb.s distinction is still used by some theorists today. According to Hebb, Intelligence A is innate potential; Intelligence B is the functioning of the brain as a result of the actual development that has occurred. These two basic types of intelligence should be distinguished from Intelligence C, or intelligence as measured by conventional psychometric tests of intelligence. Hebb also suggested that learning, an important basis of intelligence, is built up through cell assemblies, by which successively more and more complex connections among neurons are constructed as learning takes place. A third biologically based theory is that of Luria (1973, 1980), which has had a major impact on tests of intelligence (Kaufman & Kaufman 1983, Naglieri & Das 1997). According to Luria, the brain comprises three main units with respect to intelligence: (a) a unit of arousal in the brain stem and midbrain structures; (b) a sensory-input unit in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes; and (c) an organization and planning unit in the frontal cortex.

Modern Biological Views and Research

SPEED OF NEURONAL CONDUCTION

More recent theories have dealt with more specific aspects of brain or neural functioning. For example, one view has suggested that individual differences in nerve-conduction velocity are a basis for individual differences in intelligence. Two procedures have been used to measure conduction velocity, either centrally (in the brain) or peripherally (e.g. in the arm). Reed and Jensen (1992) tested brain nerve conduction velocities via two medium- latency potentials, N70 and P100, which were evoked by pattern-reversal stimulation. Subjects saw a black and white checkerboard pattern in which the black squares would change to white and the white squares to black. Over many trials, responses to these changes were analyzed via electrodes attached to the scalp in four places. Correlations of derived latency measures with IQ were small (generally in the 0.1.0.2 range of absolute value), but were significant in some cases, suggesting at least a modest relation between the two kinds of measures. Vernon and Mori (1992) reported on two studies investigating the relation between nerve-conduction velocity in the arm and IQ. In both studies, nerveconduction velocity was measured in the median nerve of the arm by attaching electrodes to the arm. In the second study, conduction velocity from the wrist to the tip of the finger was also measured. Vernon and Mori found significant correlations with IQ in the 0.4 range, as well as somewhat smaller correlations (around ?0.2) with response-time measures. They interpreted their results as supporting the hypothesis of a relation between speed of information transmission in the peripheral nerves and intelligence. However, these results must be interpreted cautiously, as Wickett and Vernon (1994) later tried unsuccessfully to replicate these earlier results.

GLUCOSE METABOLISM

Some of the most interesting recent work under the biological approach has been done by Richard Haier and his colleagues. For example, Haier et al (1988) showed that cortical glucose metabolic rates as revealed by positron emission tomography (PET) scan analysis of subjects solving Raven Matrix problems were lower for more-intelligent than for lessintelligent subjects, suggesting that the more intelligent subjects needed to expend less effort than the less intelligent ones to solve the reasoning problems. A later study (Haier et al 1992) showed a similar result for more- versus lesspracticed performers playing the computer game of Tetris. That is, smart people or intellectually expert people do not have to work as hard as less-smart or intellectually expert people at a given problem.

What remains to be shown, however, is the causal direction of this finding. One could sensibly argue that the smart people expend less glucose (as a proxy for effort) because they are smart, rather than that people are smart because they expend less glucose. Or both high IQ and low glucose metabolism may be related to a third causal variable. In other words, we cannot always assume that the biological event is a cause (in the reductionistic sense). It may be, instead, an effect.

BRAIN SIZE

Another approach considers brain size. Willerman et al (1991) correlated brain size with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) IQs, controlling for body size. They found that IQ correlated 0.65 in men and 0.35 in women, with a correlation of 0.51 for both sexes combined. A follow-up analysis of the same 40 subjects suggested that, in men, a relatively larger left hemisphere better predicted WAIS-R verbal than it predicted nonverbal ability, whereas in women a larger left hemisphere predicted nonverbal ability better than it predicted verbal ability (Willerman et al 1992). These brain-size correlations are suggestive, but it is difficult to say what they mean at this point.

BEHAVIOR GENETICS

Another approach that is at least partially biologically based is that of behavior genetics. A fairly complete review of this extensive literature is found in Sternberg and Grigorenko (1997a). The literature is complex, but it appears that about half the total variance in IQ scores is accounted for by genetic factors (Loehlin 1989, Plomin 1997). This figure may be an underestimate, because the variance includes error variance and because most studies of heritability have been with children, but we know that heritability of IQ is higher for adults than for children (Plomin 1997). In addition, some studies, such as the Texas Adoption Project (Loehlin et al 1997), suggest higher estimates: 0.78 in the Texas Adoption Project, 0.75 in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (Bouchard 1997, Bouchard et al 1990), and 0.78 in the Swedish Adoption Study of Aging (Pedersen et al 1992). At the same time, some researchers argue that effects of heredity and environment cannot be clearly and validly separated (Bronfenbrenner and Ceci 1994, Wahlsten and Gottlieb 1997). Perhaps, the direction for future research is better to figure out how heredity and environment work together to produce phenotypic intelligence (Scarr 1997), concentrating especially on withinfamily environmental variation, which appears to be more important than between-family variation (Jensen 1997). Such research requires, at the very least, very carefully prepared tests of intelligence.perhaps some of the newer tests described in the next section.

THE PSYCHOMETRIC APPROACH TO INTELLIGENCE

The psychometric approach to intelligence is among the oldest of approaches, and dates back to Galton.s (1883) psychophysical account of intelligence and attempts to measure intelligence in terms of psychophysical abilities (such as strength of hand grip or visual acuity) and later to Binet and Simon.s (1916) account of intelligence as judgment, involving adaptation to the environment, direction of one.s efforts, and self-criticism.

Theoretical Developments: Carroll.s and Horn.s Theories

Two of the major new theories proposed during the past decade have been Carroll .s (1993) and Horn.s (1994) theories. The two theories are both hierarchical, suggesting more nearly general abilities higher up in the hierarchy and more nearly specific abilities lower in the hierarchy. Carroll.s theory will be described briefly as representative of these new developments. Carroll (1993) proposed his hierarchical model of intelligence, based on the factor analysis of more than 460 data sets obtained between 1927 and 1987. His analysis encompasses more than 130,000 people from diverse walks of life and even countries of origin (although non-English-speaking countries are poorly represented among his data sets).

The model Carroll proposed, based on his monumental undertaking, is a hierarchy comprising three strata: Stratum I, which includes many narrow, specific abilities (e.g. spelling ability, speed of reasoning); Stratum II, which includes various group-factor abilities (e.g. fluid intelligence, involved in flexible thinking and seeing things in novel ways; and crystallized intelligence, the accumulated knowledge base); and Stratum III, which is just a single general intelligence, much like Spearman.s (1904) general intelligence factor.

Of these strata, the most interesting is perhaps the middle stratum, which includes, in addition to fluid and crystallized abilities, learning and memory processes, visual perception, auditory perception, facile production of ideas (similar to verbal fluency), and speed (which includes both sheer speed of response and speed of accurate responding). Although Carroll does not break much new ground, in that many of the abilities in his model have been mentioned in other theories, he does masterfully integrate a large and diverse factor-analytic literature, thereby giving great authority to his model.

An Empirical Curiosity: The Flynn Effect

We know that the environment has powerful effects on cognitive abilities. Perhaps the simplest and most potent demonstration of this effect is the .Flynn effect . (Flynn 1984, 1987, 1994). The basic phenomenon is that IQ has increased over successive generations around the world through most of the century .at least since 1930. The effect must be environmental, because obviously a successive stream of genetic mutations could not have taken hold and exerted such an effect over such a short period. The effect is powerful. at least 15 points of IQ per generation for tests of fluid intelligence. And it occurs all over the world. The effect has been greater for tests of fluid intelligence than for tests of crystallized intelligence. The difference, if linearly extrapolated (a hazardous procedure, obviously), would suggest that a person who in 1892 fell at the 90th percentile on the Raven Progressive Matrices, a test of fluid intelligence, would, in 1992, score at the 5th percentile. There have been many potential explanations of the Flynn effect, and in 1996 a conference was organized by Ulric Neisser and held at Emory University to try to explain the effect. Some of the possible explanations includes increased schooling, greater educational attainment of parents, better nutrition, and less childhood disease. A particularly interesting explanation is that of more and better parental attention to children (see Bronfenbrenner & Ceci 1994). Whatever the answer, the Flynn effect suggests we need to think carefully about the 488 STERNBERG & KAUFMAN view that IQ is fixed. It probably is not fixed within individuals (Campbell & Ramey 1994, Ramey 1994), and it is certainly not across generations.

Psychometric Tests

STATIC TESTS

Static tests are the conventional kind where people are given problems to solve, and are expected to solve them without feedback. Their final score is typically the number of items answered correctly, sometimes with a penalty for guessing.

Psychometric testing of intelligence and related abilities has generally advanced evolutionarily rather than revolutionarily. Sometimes what are touted as advances seem cosmetic or almost beside the point, as in the case of newer versions of the SAT, which are touted to have not only multiple-choice but fillin- the-blank math problems. Perhaps the most notable trend is a movement toward multifactorial theories.often hierarchical ones.and away from the notion that intelligence can be adequately understood only in terms of a single general, or g, factor (e.g. Gustafsson 1988). For example, the third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-III; Wechsler 1991) offers scores for four factors (verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, processing speed, and freedom from distractibility), but the main scores remain the verbal, performance, and total scores that have traditionally dominated interpretation of the test.

The Fourth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Thorndike et al 1986) also escapes from the orientation toward general ability that characterized earlier editions, yielding scores for crystallized intelligence, abstract-visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and short-term memory. Two new tests also are constructed on the edifice of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence (Cattell 1971, Horn 1994): the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT; Kaufman&Kaufman 1993; see also Kaufman & Kaufman 1996) and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability .Revised (Woodcock & Johnson 1989; see also Woodcock 1996) (for a review of these and other tests, see Daniel 1997). Although the theory is not new, the tendency to base psychometric tests closely on theories of intelligence is a welcome development.

The new Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (Naglieri and Das 1997) is based not on fluid-crystallized theory but rather on the theory of Luria (1973, 1976; see also Das et al 1994), mentioned above. It yields scores for attention, planning, simultaneous processing, and successive processing.

DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT

In dynamic assessment, individuals learn at the time of test. If they answer an item incorrectly, they are given guided feedback to help them solve the item, until they either get it correct or until the examiner has run out of clues to give them.

The notion of dynamic testing appears to have originated with Vygotsky (1962, 1978) and was developed independently by Feuerstein et al (1985). Dynamic assessment is generally based on the notion that cognitive abilities are modifiable, and that there is some kind of zone of proximal development (Vygotsky 1978), which represents the difference between actually developed ability and latent capacity. Dynamic assessments attempt to measure this zone of proximal development, or an analogue to it.

Dynamic assessment is cause both for celebration and for caution (EL Grigorenko and RJ Sternberg, unpublished manuscript). On the one hand, it represents a break from conventional psychometric notions of a more or less fixed level of intelligence. On the other hand, it is more a promissory note than a realized success. The Feuerstein test, The Learning Potential Assessment Device (Feuerstein et al 1985), is of clinical use but is not psychometrically normed or validated. There is only one formally normed test available in the United States (Swanson 1996), which yields scores for working memory before and at various points during and after training, as well as scores for amount of improvement with intervention, number of hints that have been given, and a subjective evaluation by the examiner of the examinee.s use of strategies. Other tests are perhaps on the horizon (Guthke & Stein 1996), but their potential for standardization and validity, too, remains to be shown.

TYPICAL PERFORMANCE TESTS

Traditionally, tests of intelligence have been maximum-performance tests, requiring examinees to work the hardest they can to maximize their scores. Ackerman (1994, Ackerman&Heggestad 1997, Goff& Ackerman 1992) has recently argued that typical-performance tests.which, like personality tests, do not require extensive intellectual effort.should supplement maximal-performance ones. On such tests, subjects might be asked to what extent they are characterized by statements like .I prefer my life to be filled with puzzles I must solve. or .I enjoy work that requires conscientious, exacting skills.. A factor analysis of such tests yielded five factors: intellectual engagement, openness, conscientiousness, directed activity, and science/technology interest. Although the trend has been toward multifaceted views of intelligence and away from reliance on general ability, some have bucked this trend. Among those who have are Herrnstein & Murray (1994).

The Bell Curve Phenomenon

A somewhat momentous event in the perception of the role of intelligence in society came with the publication of The Bell Curve (Herrnstein & Murray 1994). The impact of the book is shown by the rapid publication of a number of responses. A whole issue of The New Republic was devoted to the book, and two edited books of responses (Fraser 1995, Jacoby & Glauberman 1995) quickly appeared. Some of the responses were largely political or emotional in character, but others attacked the book on scientific grounds. A closely reasoned attack appeared a year after these collections (Fischer et al 1996).

The American Psychological Association also sponsored a report that, although not directly a response to The Bell Curve, was largely motivated by it (Neisser et al 1996). Some of the main arguments of the book are that (a) conventional IQ tests measure intelligence, at least to a good first approximation; (b) IQ is an important predictor of many measures of success in life, including school success but also including economic success, work success, success in parenting, avoidance of criminality, and avoidance of welfare dependence; (c) as a result of this prediction, people who are high in IQ are forming a cognitive elite, meaning that they are reaching the upper levels of society, whereas those who are low in IQ are falling toward the bottom; (d) tests can and should be used as a gating mechanism, given their predictive success; (e) IQis fairly highly heritable, and hence is passed on through the genes from one generation to the next, with the heritability of IQ probably in the .5..8 range; (f) there are racial and ethnic differences in intelligence, with blacks in the United States, for example, scoring about one standard deviation below whites; (g) it is likely, although not certain, that at least some of this difference between groups is due to genetic factors.

Herrnstein and Murray attempted to document their claims, using available literature and also their own analysis of the NLSY (National Longitudinal Study of Youth) data that were available to them. Although their book was written for a trade (popular) audience, the book was unusual among books for such an audience in its use of fairly sophisticated statistical techniques. It is not possible here to review the full range of responses to Herrnstein & Murray (1994). Among psychologists, there seems to be fairly widespread agreement that the social-policy recommendations of Herrnstein & Murray .which call for greater isolation of and paternalism toward those with lower IQs.do not follow from their data, but rather represent a separate ideological statement (Neisser et al 1996). Beyond that, there is a great deal of disagreement regarding the claims made by these authors.

Our own view (Sternberg 1995) is that it would be easy to draw much stronger inferences from the Herrnstein-Murray analysis than the data warrant, and perhaps even than Herrnstein & Murray themselves would support.

First, Herrnstein and Murray (1994) acknowledge that, in the United States, IQ typically accounts only for roughly 10% of the variation, on average, in individual differences across the domains of success they survey. Put another way, about 90% of the variation, and sometimes quite a bit more, remains unexplained. Second, even the 10% figure may be inflated by the fact that US society uses IQ-like tests to select, place, and ultimately, to stratify students, so that some of the outcomes that Herrnstein & Murray mention may actually be re- sults of the use of IQ-like tests rather than results of individual differences in intelligence per se. For example, admission to selective colleges in the US typically requires students to take either the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) or the American College Test (ACT), both of which, for whatever they may be named, are similar (although not identical) in kind to conventional tests of IQ. Admission to graduate and professional programs requires similar kinds of tests. The result is that those who do not test well may be denied access to these programs, and to the routes that would lead them to job, economic, and other socially sanctioned forms of success in our society.

It is thus not surprising, in a sense, that test scores would be highly correlated with, say, job status. People who do not test well have difficulty gaining access to high-status jobs, which in turn pay better than other jobs to which they might be able to gain access. If we were to use some other index instead of test scores.for example, social class or economic class.then different people would be selected for the access routes to societal success. In fact, we do use these alternative measures to some degree, although less so than in the past. Finally, although group differences in IQ are acknowledge by virtually all psychologists to be real, the cause of them remains very much in dispute. What is clear is that the evidence in favor of genetic causes is weak and equivocal (Nisbett 1995; Scarr et al 1977; Scarr & Weinberg 1976, 1983). We are certainly in no position to assign causes at this time. Understanding of group differences requires further analysis and probably requires looking at these differences through the lens of broader theories of intelligence.

BROAD THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE AND OF KINDS OF INTELLIGENCE

During recent years, there has been a trend toward broad theories of intelligence. We consider some of the main such theories next.

Multiple Intelligences

Gardner (1983) proposed that there is no single, unified intelligence but rather a set of relatively distinct, independent, and modular multiple intelligence. His theory of multiple intelligences (MI theory) originally proposed seven multiple intelligences: (a) linguistic, as used in reading a book or writing a poem; (b) logical-mathematical, as used in deriving a logical proof or solving a mathematical problem; (c) spatial, as used in fitting suitcases into the trunk of a car; (d) musical, as used in singing a song or composing a symphony; (e) bodilykinesthetic, as used in dancing or playing football; (f) interpersonal, as used in understanding and interacting with other people; and (g) intrapersonal, as used in understanding oneself.

Recently, Gardner 1998 has proposed one additional intelligence as a confirmed part of his theory naturalist intelligence the kind shown by people who are able to discern patterns in nature. Charles Darwin would be a notable example. Gardner has also suggested that there may be two other candidate intelligences: spiritual intelligence and existential intelligence. Spiritual intelligence involves a concern with cosmic or existential issues and the recognition of the spiritual as the achievement of a state of being. Existential intelligence involves a concern with ultimate issues. Gardner believes the evidence for these latter two intelligences to be less powerful than the evidence for the other eight intelligences. Whatever the evidence may be for the other eight, we agree that the evidence for these two new intelligences is speculative at this point. As of 1997, there have been no empirical investigations directly testing the validity of Gardner.s theory as a whole.

In the past, factor analysis served as the major criterion for identifying abilities. Gardner (1983) proposed a new set of criteria, including but not limited to factor analysis, for identifying the existence of a discrete kind of intelligence: (a) potential isolation by brain damage, in that the destruction or sparing of a discrete area of the brain may destroy or spare a particular kind of intelligent behavior; (b) the existence of exceptional individuals who demonstrate an extraordinary ability (or deficit) in a particular kind of intelligent behavior; (c) an identifiable core operation or set of operations that are essential to performance of a particular kind of intelligent behavior; (d) a distinctive developmental history leading from novice to master, along with disparate levels of expert performance; (e) a distinctive evolutionary history, in which increases in intelligence may be plausibly associated with enhanced adaptation to the environment; (f) supportive evidence from cognitive-experimental research; (g) supportive evidence from psychometric tests; and (h) susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system.

Since the theory was first proposed, many educational interventions have arisen that are based on the theory, sometimes closely and other times less so (Gardner 1993). Many of the programs are unevaluated, and evaluations of others of these programs seem still to be ongoing, so it is difficult to say at this point what the results will be. In one particularly careful evaluation of a well conceived program in a large southern city, there were no significant gains in student achievement or changes in student self-concept as a result of an intervention program based on Gardner.s (1983) theory (Callahan et al 1997). here is no way of knowing whether these results are representative of such intervention programs, however.

Successful Intelligence

Sternberg (1996) has suggested that we may wish to pay less attention to conventional notions of intelligence and more to what he terms successful intelligence, or the ability to adapt to, shape, and select environments to accomplish ones goals and those of ones society and culture. A successfully intelligent person balances adaptation, shaping, and selection, doing each as necessary. The theory is motivated in part by repeated findings that conventional tests of intelligence and related tests do not predict meaningful criteria of success as well as they predict scores on other similar tests and school grades (e.g. Sternberg & Williams 1997).

Successful intelligence involves an individuals discerning his or her pattern of strengths and weaknesses, and then figuring out ways to capitalize upon the strengths and at the same time to compensate for or correct the weaknesses. People attain success, in part, in idiosyncratic ways that involve their finding how best to exploit their own patterns of strengths and weaknesses. Three broad abilities are important to successful intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical abilities. Analytical abilities are required to analyze and evaluate the options available to oneself in life. They include things such as identifying the existence of a problem, defining the nature of the problem, setting up a strategy for solving the problem, and monitoring one.s solution processes. Creative abilities are required to generate problem-solving options in the first place. Creative individuals are ones who .buy low and sell high. in the world of ideas (Sternberg & Lubart 1995, 1996): They are willing to generate ideas that, like stocks with low price-earnings ratios, are unpopular and perhaps even depreciated. Having convinced at least some people of the value of these ideas, they then sell high, meaning that they move on to the next unpopular idea. Research shows that these abilities are at least partially distinct from conventional IQ, and that they are moderately domain-specific, meaning that creativity in one domain (such as art) does not necessarily imply creativity in another (such as writing) (Sternberg & Lubart 1995).

Practical abilities are required to implement options and to make them work. Practical abilities are involved when intelligence is applied to real-world contexts. A key aspect of practical intelligence is the acquisition and use of tacit knowledge, which is knowledge of what one needs to know to succeed in a given environment that is not explicitly taught and that usually is not verbalized. Research shows that tacit knowledge is acquired through mindful utilization of experience, that it is relatively domain specific, that its possession is relatively independent of conventional abilities, that it predicts criteria of job success about as well as and sometimes better than does IQ (McClelland 1973, Sternberg & Wagner 1993, Sternberg et al 1995).

The separation of practical intelligence from IQ has been shown in a number of different ways in a number of different studies. Scribner (1984, 1986) showed that experienced assemblers in a milk-processing plant used complex strategies for combining partially filled cases in a manner that minimized the number of moves required to complete an order. Although the assemblers were the least educated workers in the plant, they were able to calculate in their heads quantities expressed in different base number systems, and they routinely outperformed the more highly educated white collar workers who substituted when the assemblers were absent. Scribner found that the order-filling performance of the assemblers was unrelated to measures of academic skills, including intelligence test scores, arithmetic test scores, and grades. Ceci & Liker (1986) carried out a study of expert racetrack handicappers and found that expert handicappers used a highly complex algorithm for predicting post time odds that involved interactions among seven kinds of information. Use of a complex interaction term in their implicit equation was unrelated to the handicappers IQ.

In a series of studies, it has been shown that shoppers in California grocery stores were able to choose which of several products represented the best buy for them (Lave et al 1984, Murtaugh 1985), even though they did very poorly on the same kinds of problems when they were presented in the form of a paper-and-pencil arithmetic computation test. The same principle that applies to adults appears to apply to children as well: Carraher et al (1985) found that Brazilian street children who could apply sophisticated mathematical strategies in their street vending were unable to do the same in a classroom setting (see also Ceci & Roazzi 1994, Nunes 1994). One more example of a study of practical intelligence was provided by individuals asked to play the role of city managers for the computer-simulated city of Lohhausen (Dorner & Kreuzig 1983, Dorner et al 1983). A variety of problems were presented to these individuals, such as how best to raise revenue to build roads. The simulation involved more than one thousand variables. No relation was found between IQ and complexity of strategies used.

There is also evidence that practical intelligence can be taught (Gardner et al 1994), at least in some degree. For example, middle-school children given a program for developing their practical intelligence for school (strategies for effective reading, writing, execution of homework, and taking of tests) improved more from pretest to posttest than did control students who received an alternative but irrelevant treatment.

None of these studies suggests that IQ is unimportant for school or job performance or other kinds of performance, and indeed, the evidence suggests to the contrary (Barrett & Depinet 1991, Hunt 1995, Hunter & Hunter 1984, Schmidt & Hunter 1981, Wigdor & Garner 1982). What the studies do suggest, however, is that there are other aspects of intelligence that are relatively independent of IQ and that are important as well. A multiple-abilities prediction model of school or job performance would probably be most satisfactory.

According to the theory of successful intelligence, childrens multiple abilities are underused in educational institutions because teaching tends to value analytical (as well as memory) abilities at the expense of creative and practical abilities. Sternberg et al (1996) designed an experiment to illustrate this point. They identified 199 high school students from around the United States who were strong in analytical, creative, or practical abilities; all three kinds of abilities; or none of the kinds of abilities. Students were then brought to Yale University to take a college-level psychology course that was taught in a way that emphasized either memory, analytical, creative, or practical abilities. Some students were matched, and others were mismatched, to their own strength(s). All students were evaluated for memory-based, analytical, creative, and practical achievements.

Sternberg et al found that students whose instruction matched their pattern of abilities performed significantly better than did students who were mismatched. They also found that prediction of course performance was improved by taking into account creative and practical as well as analytical abilities.

True Intelligence

Perkins (1995) has proposed the theory of true intelligence, which he believes synthesizes classic views as well as new ones. According to Perkins, there are three basic aspects to intelligence: neural, experiential, and reflective. According to Perkins, neural intelligence is in the functioning of peoples neurological systems, with some peoples systems running faster and with more precision than do the neurological systems of others. He mentions .more finely tuned voltages. and .more exquisitely adapted chemical catalysts. as well as a .better pattern of connectivity in the labyrinth of neurons. (Perkins 1995, p. 97), although it is not entirely clear what any of these terms mean.

Perkins believes this aspect of intelligence to be largely genetically determined and unlearnable. This kind of intelligence seems to be somewhat similar to Cattells (1971) idea of fluid intelligence. The experiential aspect of intelligence is what has been learned from experience. It is the extent and organization of the knowledge base, and thus is similar to Cattells (1971) notion of crystallized intelligence. The reflective aspect of intelligence refers to the role of strategies in memory and problem solving and appears to be similar to the construct of metacognition or cognitive monitoring (Brown & DeLoache 1978, Flavell 1981). Ceci (1996) also believes that reflection is important in intelligence.

The Bioecological Model of Intelligence

Ceci (1996) has proposed a bioecological model of intelligence, according to which multiple cognitive potentials, context, and knowledge are all essential bases of individual differences in performance. Each of the multiple cognitive potentials enables relationships to be discovered, thoughts to be monitored, and knowledge to be acquired within a given domain. Although these potentials are biologically based, their development is closely linked to environmental context, and hence it is difficult if not impossible to separate cleanly biological from environmental contributions to intelligence. Moreover, abilities may express themselves very differently in different contexts. For example, children given essentially the same task in the context of a video game and in the context of a laboratory cognitive task performed much better when the task was presented in the context of the video game. Part of this superiority may have been a result of differences in emotional response, which brings us to the last broader conception we consider.

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer & Salovey 1997). The concept was introduced by Salovey & Mayer (Mayer & Salovey 1993, Salovey & Mayer 1990) and popularized and expanded upon by Goleman (1995).

There is some, though still tentative, evidence for the existence of emotional intelligence. For example, Mayer & Gehr (1996) found that emotional perception of characters in a variety of situations correlates with SAT scores, with empathy, and with emotional openness. Full convergent-discriminant validation of the construct, however, appears to be needed.

CONCLUSION

Cultures designate as .intelligent. the cognitive, social, and behavioral attributes that they value as adaptive to the requirements of living in those cultures. To the extent that there is overlap in these attributes across cultures, there will be overlap in the cultures. conceptions of intelligence. Although conceptions of intelligence may vary across cultures, the underlying cognitive attributes probably do not. There may be some variation in social and behavioral attributes. As a result, there is probably a common core of cognitive skills that underlies intelligence in all cultures, with the cognitive skills having different manifestations across the cultures.

A variety of paradigms has been used to study intelligence. These paradigms are largely complementary rather than contradictory, looking at different aspects of and questions about intelligence. Many active research programs are pursuing answers to these questions. Although there is no one right approach, we believe that the field particularly needs research that expands our notions about what intelligence is. At the same time, we must be cautious about theories that are advanced without direct empirical support. We also must be cautious about how to interpret behavior-genetic studies, which deal with correlations, not means. The Flynn effect shows that whatever the heritability of IQ, IQ is highly modifiable, at least across generations. Perhaps the increases in IQ that have been observed across generations will one day start to manifest themselves in people.s behavior. To date, signs that increases in IQ are reflected in more intelligent everyday behavior have been conspicuous by their absence.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Preparation of this chapter was supported in part under the Javits Act Program (Grant R206R50001) as administered by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, US Department of Education. The opinions expressed in this chapter do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement or the US Department of Education. Visit the Annual Reviews home page at http://www.AnnualReviews.org.

Annu. Rev. Psychol. 1998. 49:479.502 Copyright 1998 by Annual Reviews Inc. All rights reserved

Brain Learning

In this two-part series, we look at some of the basic processes that occur in brain development beginning at the embryonic state, and how the brain functions in relation to childhood learning and development.

In this series:

The Developing Brain Part One
The Learning Brain Part Two (this page)


 

The Learning Brain

   By Kenneth Wesson
Guest Columnist and Education Consultant, Neuroscience

Albert Einstein said, Learning is experiencing. Everything else is just information, suggesting that we must experience learning by utilizing our twenty or more (not just five) sensory systems. Human beings have an innate need to see, touch, taste, feel, and hear (experience) the features of any new object in order to understand it better.

Over the course of ones early formal education, the brain continues to grow based on the same strategies that are used to build it at the outsetby creating linkages between neurons, that generate the vastly complex neural networks, which represent all acquired knowledge and skills. The emerging capabilities and talents that (1) receive significant amounts of time and attention, (2) have key emotional, personal, and/or survival linkages, and (3) are repeated often, are skills that have the greatest likelihood of developing elaborate neural connections that become almost impervious to destruction short of disease or regional brain trauma. Substantial amounts of nerve growth factor, the neuro-nutrients vital for brain cell growth and survival, are regularly carried to these essential circuits. Additional glial cells, the nursemaids to the neurons, are also produced giving still greater assurance of neuronal survival.

When the brain encodes new concepts through various learning modalities, (1) those concepts are processed and stored in several interconnected neural networks, thus enhancing the power of a specific memory, and (2) the cerebral cortex establishes an abundance of physiological access routes back to that specific concept and other ideas to which it is related. A single neuron can make as many as 50,000 connections with other neurons in their effort to dissect, decipher and encode the outside world.

The more frequently that neurons linked together fire together, the greater is the likelihood that they will fire in unison on a subsequent occasion, which results in permanently hardwiring together, a process we call learning. Since it often takes six exposures (hearing, saying, touching, seeing, etc.) before new information enters into permanent memory for storage, combining multi-sensory experiences with multi-modal teaching approaches will accommodate nearly all learning styles. Additional neural connections are made with the sub-cortical structures lying just beneath the two corrugated cerebral hemispheres, when multi-sensory experiences are available to developing learners.

Well-entrenched (practiced) behaviors later become centered in the sub-cortical and cerebellar regions freeing up the conscious cerebral cortex for new learning, as deep-rooted skills no longer demand a learners full attention for their execution. The more entrenched skills no longer demand a learners full attention for their execution. A right-handed individual is able to take notes and listen to a lecture simultaneously. However, listening and taking notes using his left-hand is dramatically more difficult, if not impossible. Subsequent learning opportunities are made possible based on what Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky referred to as zones of proximal development. There are more neural networks representing ones strengths than there are for deficiencies or weaknesses. Unfortunately, schools spend inordinate amounts of time ferreting out and correcting deficiencies, rather focusing on enhancing ones strengths. There is a greater amount of cortical real estate and complex learning networks invested in ones strengths, which provides considerably more resources to work with in performance improvements and advancements in skills.

Processing Preferences in the Brain

Most human beings find learning easiest when they begin a learning experience with a hands-on, minds-on activity coupled with whole-body integrative movements. Tourists are interested in experiencing Spain not just reading about it. If that were not so, purchasing the brochure on Spain would satisfy the curious interests of all tourists. However, it is the sights, the smell, the foods, etc. that we wish to experience, all of which can only come by way of a first-hand excursion to Spain.

Our brain and skin are initially part of the same primitive formation during prenatal development, but they are separated during neurogenesis. Thus, in a sense, our skin is the other half of our brain. This, perhaps, explains why at nearly all stages of life, one learns a great deal about his environment (objects, another person, etc.) via our universal human preference to touch to learn more about an object. While touching an object, most higher order mammals will also turn it, twist it, view it from a number of other positions, etc., as a means of drawing out the most meaningful clues, cues, and relevant information needed for arriving at conclusions concerning the object. (My 2-year old son, Tyler, provides me daily evidence of this important mammalian information-gathering technique, as he walks past a picket fence and feels compelled to touch each picket as he passes by. Similarly, school children are admonished for touching the hallway walls, schools should install paneled or burlap walls that children are permitted or encouraged to touch whenever passing. This tactile activity helps to turn on the brain).

Sustained immobility in the classroom is as incompatible with life as it is incongruous with human growth and human learning. Suppressing the natural excitement of human learning by preventing, ignoring, and even punishing the brain’s natural inclinations obstructs our mission for learners of all ages. While mobility separates plants from animals, the inherent need to communicate with others in various elaborate and complex ways serves as another significant characteristic that puts human beings into a category of our own. Combining mobility with hands-on learning in a cooperative learning setting, where learners communicate their ideas with one another appears to be the best equation for yielding the greatest learning results. It is the means by which most young children and adults deem the most comfortable and the most productive learning arrangement. All complex learning and consistent stimulation serve as the serious business of learning and the brains dynamic development.

Conclusion

Recognizing that early exposure to a wide range of learning experiences has a tremendous impact on the brain, we are taking a closer look at the critical role that early cognitive development should play in pre-school and child-care programs, as well as a truly foundation-building primary educational setting. These years are not just the developmental years. They constitute the most advantageous incubation periods for developing the fundamental skills vitally necessary for successful Kindergarten through college-level (and life-long) learning. No longer do we consider the first five years of life to be a vast cognitive wasteland, during which brain undergoes an arrested development. The neural networks by which all future complex learning will be based are forged during this crucial early period and by a specific series of vitally important brain processes.

The human brain is more than capable of creating trillions of interrelated neural networks rendering our capacity to learn virtually limitless and endless, if we choose to continue stimulating and challenging the mind on a steady basis. The human brain is the quintessential example of the use-it-or-lose-it principle.

Return to Part One: The Developing Brain

Kenneth Wesson works as a keynote speaker and educational consultant for pre-school through university-level institutions and organizations. He speaks throughout the world on the neuroscience of learning and methods for creating classrooms and learning environments that are “brain-considerate.” This series is posted with his permission.

Brain Development and Learning

In this two-part series, we look at some of the basic processes that occur in brain development beginning at the embryonic state, and how the brain functions in relation to childhood learning and development.

In this series:

The Developing Brain Part One (this page)
The Learning Brain Part Two


 

Early Brain Development and Learning

By Kenneth Wesson
Guest Columnist and Education Consultant, Neuroscience

Brain Psychologist Jean Piaget described play as the serious business of all childhood learning. During infancy, the means by which the youngest brains begin knowledge acquisition are all quite similar. Children, like many other mammals, begin learning through touch, imitation, exploration, discovery and play. A significant portion of our learning is governed by a genetically pre-determined sequence of skills, which are mastered based on how and when other regions and structures inside the human brain go “on-line.” Just as the digestion of solids is preceded by a prerequisite consumption of liquids, ones tactile, visual, olfactory, motor and auditory experiences are all followed by more complex brain processes.

The Developing Brain

During embryogenesis (the process by which an embryo is converted from a fertilized cell to a full-term fetus), brain cells develop at the astounding rate of over 250,000 per minute. There are several points during the process of neurogenesis (the production of brain cells) where over 50,000 brain cells are formed every second. By the twentieth week of fetal life, over 200 billion neurons have been created.

Embryo Later, a massive neural pruning of these large numbers of cells occurs. Approximately six weeks later, during the third trimester, only fifty percent of those cells remain alive. The surviving 100 billion neurons are the healthy cells, which are ready to aid the growth and development of the newborn child. The early overproduction of neurons and neural networks guarantees that the young brain will be capable of adapting to virtually any environment into which the child is born, whether it is San Francisco, South Africa or Singapore, tropical or tundra.

Baby Billions of synapses are created in the womb during the process of synaptogenesis, a process by which the functional circuits in the brain get organized. Following birth, most new synapses come by way of ones experiences. These neural networks are subsequently used to comprehend newer events taking place in ones external world using our stored knowledge as the source of all understanding. There is a high correlation between the density of the neural connections representing ones specific knowledge, abilities or skills. Thus, it is easier to expand a childs future proficiencies by using the existing fertile neural networks.

Brain Size Increases in both the size and the weight of the brain are among the predictable neurophysiological results of a stimulating developmental environment. When children lack active healthy social encounters with others (from threats, stress and anxiety), we see brains that do not wire themselves properly in the emotional centers, which plays itself out in the most negative ways cognitively. According to Dr. Bruce Perry at the Baylor College of Medicine, the development of the cerebral cortex can be reduced by as much as 20% under these conditions rendering many brain structures under-developed. Diminishing ones learning opportunities reduces the quantity of neural networks, which decreases ones ability to learn in the future.

A fine-tuning of a childs emerging talents occurs between three and six years of age. At approximately age five or six, the brain has reached 90-95% of its adult volume and is four times its birth size. Ages three to six are the years during which extensive internal re-wiring takes place in the frontal lobes, the cortical regions involved in organizing actions, planning activities and focusing attention.

In addition to being genetically programmed, brain growth and development are also immensely influenced by neural plasticity. The brain constantly modifies the connections among its one trillion brain cells that are consistently impacted by incidents processed consciously and unconsciously by the brain. When new learning occurs, there is a neurophysiological correlate that is created to represent ones newly attained knowledge. The unfolding events that one encounters largely determine how much cortical growth will take place, in what regions that growth will take place, when, if, and where subsequent development will occur (or not) in his blossoming young brain. The very architecture of each human brain is altered as a result of all newly acquired skills and competencies. By the process of neural plasticity (the brains ability to undergo physical, chemical, and structural changes as it responds to experiences and to ones environment) the number and density of these functional neural pathways will be determined by the learning experiences one encounters.

Once born, the human brain is so incredibly responsive to external stimuli that we can now confidently state that nearly all early experiences and stimuli contribute in chemically and physically shaping the more than 200 anatomically-distinct processing systems within the growing brain. The sensitive developmental processes literally customize ones neuroanatomy and ultimately determine the brains structure-function correlations, including the regional and sub-cortical inner working capabilities of each human brain. Dr. Sally Shaywitz at Yale University is currently tracking the modifications that arise in the brains of five and six-year-old novice readers after they learn how to read as compared to their pre-reading brain architecture. In her analyses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), their brain alterations are compared to the expected structural and functional changes that normally transpire in the early cortical development of similarly aged children, as well as comparisons with the brains of experienced young readers.

If the region of the motor cortex that is responsible for right-hand movement is damaged, the use of a persons right hand will be substantially decreased or lost completely. Similarly, if movement in the right hand is grossly limited or restricted nearly to the level of non-use, the cortical regions of the brain responsible for movement in that hand will atrophy, as the neglected neural networks begin to shut down inside the efficient brain. Interestingly, the cortical areas representing the opposite (left) hand will often increase to compensate for the loss of right-hand usage and a marked improvement in left-hand dexterity and proficiency takes place. This phenomenon, compensatory hypertrophy, is how the brain physically reorganizes itself after brain trauma or injury in such a way that performance in the opposite hand (or leg, or eye, etc.) is enhanced as a response to the lost service of its counterpart. By doing so, one can adapt (enhancing his chances of survival) as the brain modifies itself always looking towards the future.

Continue to Part Two: The Learning Brain

Kenneth Wesson works as a keynote speaker and educational consultant for pre-school through university-level institutions and organizations. He speaks throughout the world on the neuroscience of learning and methods for creating classrooms and learning environments that are “brain-considerate.” This series is posted with his permission.

Psychology 101 – Motivation and Emotion

Introduction

What drives you to want to read a particular book? Surf the net? Go to the park? Why did you choose your career? Where you live? Are your drives different from other people or do we all share the same goals in life?

Here will discuss the various theories related to motivation and emotion. We will look at the different views on motivation, from those deemed instinctual, internal, and those viewed as external. We will also look at the theories of emotion, an abstract concept which has yet to have an agreed upon definition.

Motivation – The Five Major Theories

Ever wonder why some people seem to be very successful, highly motivated individuals? Where does the energy, the drive, or the direction come from? Motivation is an area of psychology that has gotten a great deal of attention, especially in the recent years. The reason is because we all want to be successful, we all want direction and drive, and we all want to be seen as motivated.

There are several distinct theories of motivation we will discuss in this section. Some include basic biological forces, while others seem to transcend concrete explanation. Let’s talk about the five major theories of motivation.

1. Instinct Theory

Instinct theory is derived from our biological make-up. We’ve all seen spider’s webs and perhaps even witnessed a spider in the tedious job of creating its home and trap. We’ve all seen birds in their nests, feeding their young or painstakingly placing the twigs in place to form their new home. How do spiders know how to spin webs? How do birds now how to build nests?

The answer is biology. All creatures are born with specific innate knowledge about how to survive. Animals are born with the capacity and often times knowledge of how to survive by spinning webs, building nests, avoiding danger, and reproducing. These innate tendencies are preprogrammed at birth, they are in our genes, and even if the spider never saw a web before, never witnessed its creation, it would still know how to create one.

Humans have the same types of innate tendencies. Babies are born with a unique ability that allows them to survive; they are born with the ability to cry. Without this, how would others know when to feed the baby, know when he needed changing, or when she wanted attention and affection? Crying allows a human infant to survive. We are also born with particular reflexes which promote survival. The most important of these include sucking, swallowing, coughing, blinking. Newborns can perform physical movements to avoid pain; they will turn their head if touched on their cheek and search for a nipple (rooting reflex); and they will grasp an object that touches the palm of their hands.

2. Drive Reduction Theory

According to Clark Hull (1943, 1952), humans have internal internal biological needs which motivate us to perform a certain way. These needs, or drives, are defined by Hull as internal states of arousal or tension which must be reduced. A prime example would be the internal feelings of hunger or thirst, which motivates us to eat. According to this theory, we are driven to reduce these drives so that we may maintain a sense of internal calmness.

3. Arousal Theory

Similar to Hull’s Drive Reduction Theory, Arousal theory states that we are driven to maintain a certain level of arousal in order to feel comfortable. Arousal refers to a state of emotional, intellectual, and physical activity. It is different from the above theory, however, because it doesn’t rely on only a reduction of tension, but a balanced amount. It also does better to explain why people climb mountains, go to school, or watch sad movies.

4. Psychoanalytic Theory

Remember Sigmund Freud and his five part theory of personality. As part of this theory, he believed that humans have only two basic drives: Eros and Thanatos, or the Life and Death drives. According to Psychoanalytic theory, everything we do, every thought we have, and every emotion we experience has one of two goals: to help us survive or to prevent our destruction. This is similar to instinct theory, however, Freud believed that the vast majority of our knowledge about these drives is buried in the unconscious part of the mind.

Psychoanalytic theory therefore argues that we go to school because it will help assure our survival in terms of improved finances, more money for healthcare, or even an improved ability to find a spouse. We move to better school districts to improve our children’s ability to survive and continue our family tree. We demand safety in our cars, toys, and in our homes. We want criminal locked away, and we want to be protected against poisons, terrorists, and any thing else that could lead to our destruction. According to this theory, everything we do, everything we are can be traced back to the two basic drives

5. Humanistic Theory

Although discussed last, humanistic theory is perhaps the most well know theory of motivation. According to this theory, humans are driven to achieve their maximum potential and will always do so unless obstacles are placed in their way. These obstacles include hunger, thirst, financial problems, safety issues, or anything else that takes our focus away from maximum psychological growth.

The best way to describe this theory is to utilize the famous pyramid developed by Abraham Maslow (1970) called the Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow believed that humans have specific needs that must be met and that if lower level needs go unmet, we can not possible strive for higher level needs. The Hierarchy of Needs shows that at the lower level, we must focus on basic issues such as food, sleep, and safety. Without food, without sleep, how could we possible focus on the higher level needs such as respect, education, and recognition?

Maslow Pyramid

Throughout our lives, we work toward achieving the top of the pyramid, self actualization, or the realization of all of our potential. As we move up the pyramid, however, things get in the way which slow us down and often knock us backward. Imagine working toward the respect and recognition of your colleagues and suddenly finding yourself out of work and homeless. Suddenly, you are forced backward and can no longer focus your attention on your work due to the need for finding food and shelter for you and your family.

According to Maslow, nobody has ever reached the peak of his pyramid. We all may strive for it and some may even get close, but no one has achieved full self-actualization. Self-actualization means a complete understanding of who you are, a sense of completeness, of being the best person you could possibly be. To have achieved this goal is to stop living, for what is there to strive for if you have learned everything about yourself, if you have experienced all that you can, and if there is no way left for you to grow emotionally, intellectually, or spiritually

Emotion – The Five Major Theories

In the above section we looked at why people (YOU!) may act ot think a certain way. But what about how they feel? What is emotion? A feeling? Then what is a feeling? These terms are difficult to define and even more difficult to understand completely. People have been attempting to understand this phenomenon for thousands of years, and will most likely debate for a thousand more. This section will present the various theories related to the acquisition of emotion. The mainstream definition of emotion refers to a feeling state involving thoughts, physiological changes, and an outward expression or behavior. But what comes first? The thought? The physiological arousal? The behavior? Or does emotion exist in a vacuum, whether or not these other components are present? There are five theories which attempt to understand why we experience emotion.

1. James-Lange Theory

The James-Lange theory of emotion argues that an event causes physiological arousal first and then we interpret this arousal. Only after our interpretation of the arousal can we experience emotion. If the arousal is not noticed or is not given any thought, then we will not experience any emotion based on this event. EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. You notice these physiological changes and interpret them as your body’s preparation for a fearful situation. You then experience fear.

    Event → Arrousal → Interpretation → Emotion

2. Cannon-Bard Theory

The Cannon-Bard theory argues that we experience physiological arousal and emotional at the same time, but gives no attention to the role of thoughts or outward behavior. EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. At the same time as these physiological changes occur you also experience the emotion of fear.

    Event → Arrousal
→Emotion

3. Schachter-Singer Theory

According to this theory, an event causes physiological arousal first. You must then identify a reason for this arousal and then you are able to experience and label the emotion. EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. Upon noticing this arousal you realize that is comes from the fact that you are walking down a dark alley by yourself. This behavior is dangerous and therefore you feel the emotion of fear.

    Event → Arrousal → Reasoning → Emotion

4. Lazarus Theory

Lazarus Theory states that a thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal. In other words, you must first think about your situation before you can experience an emotion. EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you think it may be a mugger so you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens and at the same time experience fear.

    Event → Thought → Arrousal
→Emotion

5. Facial Feedback Theory

According to the facial feedback theory, emotion is the experience of changes in our facial muscles. In other words, when we smile, we then experience pleasure, or happiness. When we frown, we then experience sadness. it is the changes in our facial muscles that cue our brains and provide the basis of our emotions. Just as there are an unlimited number of muscle configurations in our face, so to are there a seemingly unlimited number of emotions. EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and your eyes widen, your teeth clench and your brain interprets these facial changes as the expression of fear. Therefore you experience the emotion of fear.

    Event → Facial Changes → Emotion

Psychology 101 – Developmental Theories

Introduction to Development, Personality, and Stage Theories

On this Page:

1: Introduction to Development, Personality, and Stage Theories

2: Motor and Cognitive Development

3: Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

4: Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development

5: Freud’s Structural and Topographical Model

6: Freud’s Ego Defense Mechanisms

7: Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development

1. Introduction to Development, Personality, and Stage Theories

When discussing any type of development, most theorist break it down into specific stages. These stages are typically progressive. In other words, you must pass through one stage before you can get to the next. Think about how you learned to run; first you had to learn to crawl, then you could learn to walk, and finally you could develop the skills needed to run. Without the first two stages, running would be an impossibility.

Here we will review the most prominent (and traditional) stage theories with regard to motor and cognitive, social development, development, and moral development. Most of these stage theories are progressive, although in some, such as Erikson’s psychosocial and Freud’s psychosexual, a person can fail to complete the stage while still continuing. This failure, however, will result in difficulties later in life according to the theories. The following offers an overview of development according to the principles of psychology.

2. Motor Development in Infancy and Childhood

Most infants develop motor abilities in the same order and at approximately the same age. In this sense, most agree that these abilities are genetically preprogrammed within all infants. The environment does play a role in the development, with an enriched environment often reducing the learning time and an impoverished one doing the opposite.

The following chart delineates the development of infants in sequential order. The ages shown are averages and it is normal for these to vary by a month or two in either direction.

2 months able to lift head up on his own

3 months can roll over

4 months can sit propped up without falling over

6 months is able to sit up without support

7 months begins to stand while holding on to things for support

9 months can begin to walk, still using support

10 months is able to momentarily stand on her own without support

11 months can stand alone with more confidence

12 months begin walking alone without support

14 months can walk backward without support

17 months can walk up steps with little or no support

18 months able to manipulate objects with feet while walking, such as kicking a ball

Cognitive Development in Children

Probably the most cited theory in the cognitive development in children is Jean Piaget (1896-1980). As with all stage theories, Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development maintains that children go through specific stages as their intellect and ability to see relationships matures. These stages are completed in a fixed order with all children, even those in other countries. The age range, however can vary from child to child.

Sensorimotor Stage. This stage occurs between the ages of birth and two years of age, as infants begin to understand the information entering their sense and their ability to interact with the world. During this stage, the child learns to manipulate objects although they fail to understand the permanency of these objects if they are not within their current sensory perception. In other words, once an object is removed from the childs view, he or she is unable to understand that the object still exists.

The major achievement during this stage is that of Object Permanency, or the ability to understand that these objects do in fact continue to exist. This includes his ability to understand that when mom leaves the room, she will eventually return, resulting in an increased sense of safety and security. Object Permanency occurs during the end of this stage and represents the childs ability to maintain a mental image of the object (or person) without the actual perception.

Preoperational Stage. The second stage begins after Object Permanency is achieved and occurs between the ages of two to seven years of age. During this stage, the development of language occurs at a rapid pace. Children learn how to interact with their environment in a more complex manner through the use of words and images. This stage is marked by Egocentrism, or the childs belief that everyone sees the world the same way that she does. The fail to understand the differences in perception and believe that inanimate objects have the same perceptions they do, such as seeing things, feeling, hearing and their sense of touch.

A second important factor in this stage is that of Conservation, which is the ability to understand that quantity does not change if the shape changes. In other words, if a short and wide glass of water is poured into a tall and thin glass. Children in this stage will perceive the taller glass as having more water due only because of its height. This is due to the children’s inability to understand reversibility and to focus on only one aspect of a stimulus (called centration), such as height, as opposed to understanding other aspects, such as glass width.

Concrete Operations Stage. Occurring between ages 7 and about 12, the third stage of cognitive development is marked by a gradual decrease in centristic thought and the increased ability to focus on more than one aspect of a stimulus. They can understand the concept of grouping, knowing that a small dog and a large dog are still both dogs, or that pennies, quarters, and dollar bills are part of the bigger concept of money.

They can only apply this new understanding to concrete objects ( those they have actually experienced). In other words, imagined objects or those they have not seen, heard, or touched, continue to remain somewhat mystical to these children, and abstract thinking has yet to develop.

Formal Operations Stage. In the final stage of cognitive development (from age 12 and beyond), children begin to develop a more abstract view of the world. They are able to apply reversibility and conservation to both real and imagined situations. They also develop an increased understanding of the world and the idea of cause and effect. By the teenage years, they are able to develop their own theories about the world. This stage is achieved by most children, although failure to do so has been associated with lower intelligence.

3. Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development

Like Piaget, Erik Erikson (1902-1994) maintained that children develop in a predetermined order. Instead of focusing on cognitive development, however, he was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self. Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development has eight distinct stage, each with two possible outcomes. According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and successful interactions with others. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. These stages, however, can be resolved successfully at a later time.

Trust Versus Mistrust. From ages birth to one year, children begin to learn the ability to trust others based upon the consistency of their caregiver(s). If trust develops successfully, the child gains confidence and security in the world around him and is able to feel secure even when threatened. Unsuccessful completion of this stage can result in an inability to trust, and therefore an sense of fear about the inconsistent world. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Between the ages of one and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world. If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their own abilities.

Initiative vs. Guilt. Around age three and continuing to age six, children assert themselves more frequently. They begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative, and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. Conversely, if this tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others and will therefore remain followers, lacking in self-initiative.

Industry vs. Inferiority. From age six years to puberty, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments. They initiate projects, see them through to completion, and feel good about what they have achieved. During this time, teachers play an increased role in the childs development. If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel industrious and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals. If this initiative is not encouraged, if it is restricted by parents or teacher, then the child begins to feel inferior, doubting his own abilities and therefore may not reach his potential.

Identity vs. Role Confusion. During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc. During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the outcome of their explorations. This sense of who they are can be hindered, which results in a sense of confusion (“I dont know what I want to be when I grow up”) about themselves and their role in the world.

Intimacy vs. Isolation. Occurring in Young adulthood, we begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore relationships leading toward longer term commitments with someone other than a family member. Successful completion can lead to comfortable relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a relationship. Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression.

Generativity vs. Stagnation. During middle adulthood, we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations. By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive.

Ego Integrity vs. Despair. As we grow older and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired person. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life. If we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our pasts, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness.

4. Freuds Stages of Psychosexual Development

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is probably the most well known theorist when it comes to the development of personality. Freuds Stages of Psychosexual Development are, like other stage theories, completed in a predetermined sequence and can result in either successful completion or a healthy personality or can result in failure, leading to an unhealthy personality. This theory is probably the most well known as well as the most controversial, as Freud believed that we develop through stages based upon a particular erogenous zone. During each stage, an unsuccessful completion means that a child becomes fixated on that particular erogenous zone and either over or under-indulges once he or she becomes an adult.

Oral Stage (Birth to 18 months). During the oral stage, the child if focused on oral pleasures (sucking). Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails. Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers. On the other hand, they may also fight these urges and develop pessimism and aggression toward others.

Anal Stage (18 months to three years). The childs focus of pleasure in this stage is on eliminating and retaining feces. Through societys pressure, mainly via parents, the child has to learn to control anal stimulation. In terms of personality, after effects of an anal fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal retentive). On the opposite end of the spectrum, they may become messy and disorganized (anal expulsive).

Phallic Stage (ages three to six). The pleasure zone switches to the genitals. Freud believed that during this stage boy develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother. Because of this, he becomes rivals with his father and sees him as competition for the mothers affection. During this time, boys also develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings, such as by castrating them. This group of feelings is known as Oedipus Complex ( after the Greek Mythology figure who accidentally killed his father and married his mother).

Later it was added that girls go through a similar situation, developing unconscious sexual attraction to their father. Although Freud Strongly disagreed with this, it has been termed the Electra Complex by more recent psychoanalysts.

According to Freud, out of fear of castration and due to the strong competition of his father, boys eventually decide to identify with him rather than fight him. By identifying with his father, the boy develops masculine characteristics and identifies himself as a male, and represses his sexual feelings toward his mother. A fixation at this stage could result in sexual deviancies (both overindulging and avoidance) and weak or confused sexual identity according to psychoanalysts.

Latency Stage (age six to puberty). Its during this stage that sexual urges remain repressed and children interact and play mostly with same sex peers.

Genital Stage (puberty on). The final stage of psychosexual development begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure is the genitals.

5. Freud’s Structural and Topographical Models of Personality

Sigmund Freud’s Theory is quite complex and although his writings on psychosexual development set the groundwork for how our personalities developed, it was only one of five parts to his overall theory of personality. He also believed that different driving forces develop during these stages which play an important role in how we interact with the world.

Structural Model (id, ego, superego)

According to Freud, we are born with our Id. The id is an important part of our personality because as newborns, it allows us to get our basic needs met. Freud believed that the id is based on our pleasure principle. In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation. When a child is hungry, the id wants food, and therefore the child cries. When the child needs to be changed, the id cries. When the child is uncomfortable, in pain, too hot, too cold, or just wants attention, the id speaks up until his or her needs are met.

The id doesn’t care about reality, about the needs of anyone else, only its own satisfaction. If you think about it, babies are not real considerate of their parents’ wishes. They have no care for time, whether their parents are sleeping, relaxing, eating dinner, or bathing. When the id wants something, nothing else is important.

Within the next three years, as the child interacts more and more with the world, the second part of the personality begins to develop. Freud called this part the Ego. The ego is based on the reality principle. The ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. Its the ego’s job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation.

By the age of five, or the end of the phallic stage of development, the Superego develops. The Superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers. Many equate the superego with the conscience as it dictates our belief of right and wrong.

In a healthy person, according to Freud, the ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy the needs of the id, not upset the superego, and still take into consideration the reality of every situation. Not an easy job by any means, but if the id gets too strong, impulses and self gratification take over the person’s life. If the superego becomes to strong, the person would be driven by rigid morals, would be judgmental and unbending in his or her interactions with the world. You’ll learn how the ego maintains control as you continue to read.


Topographical Model

Freud believed that the majority of what we experience in our lives, the underlying emotions, beliefs, feelings, and impulses are not available to us at a conscious level. He believed that most of what drives us is buried in our unconscious. If you remember the Oedipus and Electra Complex, they were both pushed down into the unconscious, out of our awareness due to the extreme anxiety they caused. While buried there, however, they continue to impact us dramatically according to Freud.

The role of the unconscious is only one part of the model. Freud also believed that everything we are aware of is stored in our conscious. Our conscious makes up a very small part of who we are. In other words, at any given time, we are only aware of a very small part of what makes up our personality; most of what we are is buried and inaccessible.

The final part is the preconscious or subconscious. This is the part of us that we can access if prompted, but is not in our active conscious. Its right below the surface, but still buried somewhat unless we search for it. Information such as our telephone number, some childhood memories, or the name of your best childhood friend is stored in the preconscious.

Because the unconscious is so large, and because we are only aware of the very small conscious at any given time, this theory has been likened to an iceberg, where the vast majority is buried beneath the water’s surface. The water, by the way, would represent everything that we are not aware of, have not experienced, and that has not been integrated into our personalities, referred to as the nonconscious.

6. Ego Defense Mechanisms

We stated earlier that the ego’s job was to satisfy the id’s impulses, not offend the moralistic character of the superego, while still taking into consideration the reality of the situation. We also stated that this was not an easy job. Think of the id as the ‘devil on your shoulder’ and the superego as the ‘angel of your shoulder.’ We don’t want either one to get too strong so we talk to both of them, hear their perspective and then make a decision. This decision is the ego talking, the one looking for that healthy balance.

Before we can talk more about this, we need to understand what drives the id, ego, and superego. According to Freud, we only have two drives; sex and aggression. In other words, everything we do is motivated by one of these two drives.

Sex, also called Eros or the Life force, represents our drive to live, prosper, and produce offspring. Aggression, also called Thanatos or our Death force, represents our need to stay alive and stave off threats to our existence, our power, and our prosperity.

Now the ego has a difficult time satisfying both the id and the superego, but it doesn’t have to do so without help. The ego has some tools it can use in its job as the mediator, tools that help defend the ego. These are called Ego Defense Mechanisms or Defenses. When the ego has a difficult time making both the id and the superego happy, it will employ one or more of these defenses:

DEFENSEDESCRIPTIONEXAMPLE
denialarguing against an anxiety provoking stimuli by stating it doesn’t existdenying that your physician’s diagnosis of cancer is correct and seeking a second opinion
displacementtaking out impulses on a less threatening targetslamming a door instead of hitting as person, yelling at your spouse after an argument with your boss
intellectualizationavoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual aspectsfocusing on the details of a funeral as opposed to the sadness and grief
projectionplacing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone elsewhen losing an argument, you state “You’re just Stupid;” homophobia
rationalizationsupplying a logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reasonstating that you were fired because you didn’t kiss up the the boss, when the real reason was your poor performance
reaction formationtaking the opposite belief because the true belief causes anxietyhaving a bias against a particular race or culture and then embracing that race or culture to the extreme
regressionreturning to a previous stage of developmentsitting in a corner and crying after hearing bad news; throwing a temper tantrum when you don’t get your way
repressionpulling into the unconsciousforgetting sexual abuse from your childhood due to the trauma and anxiety
sublimationacting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable waysublimating your aggressive impulses toward a career as a boxer; becoming a surgeon because of your desire to cut; lifting weights to release ‘pent up’ energy
suppressionpushing into the unconscioustrying to forget something that causes you anxiety

Ego defenses are not necessarily unhealthy as you can see by the examples above.  In face, the lack of these defenses, or the inability to use them effectively can often lead to problems in life.  However, we sometimes employ the defenses at the wrong time or overuse them, which can be equally destructive.


7. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development

Although it has been questioned as to whether it applied equally to different genders and different cultures, Kohlberg’s (1973) stages of moral development is the most widely cited. It breaks our development of morality into three levels, each of which is divided further into two stages:

Preconventional Level (up to age nine):

     ~Self Focused Morality~

1. Morality is defined as obeying rules and avoiding negative consequences. Children in this stage see rules set, typically by parents, as defining moral law.

2. That which satisfies the child’s needs is seen as good and moral.

Conventional Level (age nine to adolescence):

~Other Focused Morality~

3. Children begin to understand what is expected of them by their parents, teacher, etc. Morality is seen as achieving these expectations.

4. Fulfilling obligations as well as following expectations are seen as moral law for children in this stage.

Postconventional Level (adulthood):

~Higher Focused Morality~ 

5. As adults, we begin to understand that people have different opinions about morality and that rules and laws vary from group to group and culture to culture. Morality is seen as upholding the values of your group or culture.

6. Understanding your own personal beliefs allow adults to judge themselves and others based upon higher levels of morality. In this stage what is right and wrong is based upon the circumstances surrounding an action. Basics of morality are the foundation with independent thought playing an important role.

 *This article was adapted from material provided by the Heffner Media Group, Inc.circa 2003 and remains relevant some 10+ years later due to the fundamental nature of the material. Should you be aware of newly developed complimentary or contradictory theories or studies relevant to this topic, please contact us right away.